- 1 What is psychology?
- 2 historical roots of psychological production
- 3 Psychological research fields
- 3.1 Basic research areas
- 3.1.1 metamorphosis psychology
- 3.1.2 Physiological Psychology
- 3.1.3 Cognitive psychology
- 3.1.4 Comparative Psychology
- 3.1.5 Developmental Psychology
- 3.1.6 Personality Psychology
- 3.1.7 Quantitative psychology
- 3.1.8 Social Psychology
- 3.1.9 Prototype psychology
- 3.2 Applied Research Fields
- 3.2.1 Clinical Psychology
- 3.2.2 Educational Psychology
- 3.2.3 Health Psychology
- 3.2.4 Industrial and Organizational Psychology
- 3.2.5 School Psychology
- 3.1 Basic research areas
- 4 Psychological research methods
- 4.1 Experimental Method (Experimental Method)
- 4.2 Observation method
- 5 Psychology three major schools and their representatives
- 5.1 Psychoanalytic school
- 5.2 Behaviorism
- 5.3 Humanism
The name of psychology comes from the Greek language. It is a discipline that studies the behaviors and psychological phenomena of humans and animals. It is both a theoretical subject and an applied subject. Including theoretical psychologyand applied psychology .
Psychological research involves many areas of perception , cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships , as well as many areas of daily life—family, educational psychology , health, and so on. On the one hand, psychology attempts to use the brain to explain the basic behaviors and psychological functions of individuals. At the same time, psychology also tries to explain the role of individual psychological functions in social and social behaviors and social dynamics. It also works with neuroscience, medicine, and biology. It is related to science, because the physiological role explored by these sciences affects the individual’s mind.
Early psychological research belonged to the category of philosophy, called philosophical psychology. The study of philosophical psychology can be traced back to ancient civilizations in ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, China, and India. For example, Plato proposed the idea of dual coexistence. Some people think that Aristotle’s “On the Soul” is the earliest book on the study of psychology. Through a long-term evolution, slowly produce a variety of different disciplines, including the psychology that people now understand.
Philosophical psychology mainly focuses on four major issues: psychosomatic relationship, nature and education, free will and determinism, and source of knowledge. His early theories were monism , dualism , environmental determinism, and spiritual determinism. In modern philosophical psychology, there are three major schools of thought, including rationalism, empiricism and romanticism. As the German psychologist Ebbinghaus said: “Psychology has a long past, but only a short history.” Clinical psychology has begun in medieval Islamic medicine and psychology.
1. The beginning of scientific psychology
Although psychological experiments can be traced back to the Arab scholar Alhazen’s book “Optics” (1021), however, experimental psychology as an independent discipline that began in 1879, the year, Wundt ( Wilhelm Wundt) in Germany The University of Leipzig established the first specialized psychological laboratory, and Vonte was therefore called the “father of psychology.” The 1879 period is usually the time of birth of scientific psychology, which is later than the time when many natural sciences are separated from philosophy and form an independent discipline. Vonte was also the first person to call himself a psychologist. Other early and important psychologists include Ebbinghaus and others. Late 19th and early 20th century, Sigmund Freud ( Freud ) of psychoanalysis rise.
2. The rise of behaviorism
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the behaviorist school dominated psychology at the time. After the behavioral school when the prevalence of, representatives for the Skinner (SF Skinner), but for its intrinsic cognitive processes that exist regardless of the recent popular cognitivism is ignoring the intrinsic importance of cognitive processes before, representatives have let Piaget ( Jane Piaget ), Miller, Herbert Simon, and so on. There are many genres due to the diversity of research methods and methods of psychology. Constructivism, Gestalt, and Functionalism were the first five university schools.
Historical roots of psychological production
- First, the historical roots of psychological production: the product of long-term development of material reflection characteristics
Substances in nature have reflective properties that are reflected when they are externally affected. Moreover, the material reflection characteristics evolved with the evolution of natural matter, and the more advanced the material, the more developed the complex characteristics, and the more advanced the material. The reflective properties of the substances in the advanced stage are produced by the long historical evolution of the material reflection characteristics of the substances in the lower stage. In the world that humans currently grasp, the material reflection characteristics go through the following stages: non-biological physical reflections (physical, chemical, mechanical), stimulating inductiveness of lower organisms (including plants), feelings of higher animals , perception and representation, human imagination (with memory) and thinking. It can be seen that the psychological phenomenon is a phenomenon derived from the long-term evolution of the material world, a high-level form of material reflection on external stimuli, and a manifestation of the highly organized nature of matter. The generation of psychology is rooted in the high development of the characteristics of material reflection. Psychological phenomena are substances that respond specifically to stimuli.
The characteristic of reflection is manifested only when it is stimulated. Without stimulation, the characteristic will be lurking and will not manifest itself. Psychology also has such commonality. Only when stimulated will it show psychological phenomena and show the existence of psychology. Without stimulation, the mind will disappear. Psychology is produced, existed and developed on the basis of stimulation. Psychology is a highly organized substance in which matter responds to stimuli.
- Second, the sign of psychological production: feeling
On the logical level, psychological phenomena include feeling, perception, representation, memory , thinking , imagination, emotion and will. In the end, is the emergence of that kind of psychological phenomenon marking the birth of psychology? What is the sign of psychological production? What kind of psychological phenomenon has produced the psychological production?
A phenomenon must have its essence. When a psychological phenomenon occurs, there will be psychological production. Which of the psychological phenomena is the first and most basic psychological phenomenon, and can reasonably introduce other psychological phenomena? Obviously it feels. Only the earliest feelings that can be produced can develop other psychological phenomena, which should be the sign of psychological birth. This can be reasoned from three aspects:
(1) Feeling is the basis of all other psychological phenomena. Without feeling, there is no other psychological phenomenon. The feeling is born, other psychological phenomena develop on the basis of feelings, feeling is the source of all other psychological phenomena and “germ”, other psychological phenomena are developed, strengthened and matured on the basis of feeling. Feeling is the “ foundation ” of other psychological phenomena, and other psychological phenomena are based on feelings.
(2) Individual psychology shows that newborn babies only have unconditional reflexes, only simple feelings, and perceptions and representations have not yet developed, but we cannot deny that babies have no psychology. In this way, we actually admitted in the subconscious that a baby with only feelings also has a mentality! Psychology is born with the birth of feelings, and once you feel it, you have a mentality. With the feeling alone, it marks the birth of psychology. All other psychological phenomena are developed with the feeling of “germ”, which is the different stages of germ growth. As the baby develops, his psychology gradually develops, and the psychological phenomenon becomes more and more complicated.
(3) The evolutionary history of animals also shows that feeling is a sign of psychological production and “germ.” When did the feeling come about? In other words, does it feel like it started to appear in that animal in the evolutionary history of animals? In the history of animal evolution. The animal that first appeared psychologically was a coelenterate. The coelenterate with the reticular nervous system reflects the external stimuli with a simple feeling. The coelenterate has the simplest and lowest level of psychological phenomenon, that is, it has psychological and psychological birth in the coelenterate, and later with the animal Evolution and development, psychology is gradually developing, enriching, and gradually appearing perception, appearance, imagination and thinking. The history of psychological evolution is an attachment to the evolutionary history of animals and evolved as animals evolved. Psychology is also developed from the sensational animal with the evolution of the creature. The psychology is complicated by the evolution of the creature on the basis of the sensation, and the perception, appearance and imagination appear until the consciousness and thinking appear. Such as advanced psychological phenomena.
- Third, the objective tool of psychological production: the nervous system
Psychology is not unique to the human brain. For example, the worm’s decapitation can be regenerated; the frog and the scorpion retreat in the cerebral hemisphere are still conditioned; the brain-removing pigeons still have instinctive unconditioned reflexes and can still walk and fly. In the absence of the brain, these animals still exhibit psychological phenomena. Therefore, the brain is not a necessary condition for psychological existence.
The evolutionary history of animals shows that psychology is produced when animals evolved into coelenterates, and the animals at this time produced the most primitive nervous system, the reticular nervous system. In the biological evolutionary chain, there is no psychological phenomenon before the emergence of the nervous system, and the psychology is produced simultaneously with the nervous system. Then, as the nervous system becomes more complex, the psychological phenomenon is also enriched. As one of the psychological appearances, its behavior is also increasingly complex. Regardless of the stage of the animal, if the entire nervous system is extracted or destroyed, the mind will disappear. And if a part of the nervous system is damaged, there will be some abnormalities in its psychology.
Psychology is caused by stimulation. It is the result of the electrical pulse caused by stimulation spreading on the nervous system. It is caused by the spread of bioelectric current in the nervous system. It is caused by the conduction of current caused by the stimulation of the cell membrane in the nervous system. of. It is the nervous system that is produced by the stimulation. Therefore, the nervous system is a tool for psychological production.
- Fourth, the mechanism of psychological production: changes in membrane potential of nerve cells
From the starting point of a single psychological production, the first is to stimulate the action on the nerve cells and cause psychology. How does this single stimulus cause psychology? There is polarization in the cell membrane of nerve cells, a negative charge is accumulated on the inner side of the cell membrane, and a positive charge is accumulated on the outer side of the cell membrane. There is one plate on each side of the membrane, and the inner side of the membrane is equivalent to the negative electrode plate, and the outer side of the membrane is equivalent to the positive electrode plate, so that the cell membrane is on the cell membrane. Corresponding to the existence of an electric field , when the cell membrane is not subjected to any stimulation, the two sides of the membrane are relatively stationary and have a resting potential. Once the membrane is stimulated by a certain intensity, the resting potential becomes an action potential, and the two sides of the membrane are charged. The particles are recombined to form an electric field in which a positive charge is accumulated in the film and a negative charge is accumulated outside the film. When the stimulus disappears, the cell membrane is adjusted again and returns to the unstimulated state. The positive charge is concentrated, so that the electric field on the two sides of the film undergoes two directional changes, that is, the electric field undergoes a major change, and the changed electric field generates a magnetic field, at which time an electromagnetic field is formed, which is equivalent to electromagnetic oscillation. The result of this change is that the cell membrane at the stimulus is restored to its original state, so the energy exerted by the stimulation on the cells is all transmitted. How is this energy delivered? This stimulation causes a change in the potential of the cell membrane on the cell membrane, creating an excitatory point, causing the adjacent unstimulated cell membrane potential to also change, forming a new excitatory point. The specific process is: the electric field of the excited point and the adjacent unexcited point. Potential difference between electric fieldsThe charged particles move, causing the adjacent unexcited part to excite, the direction of the electric field changes, and the potential at that point changes from the original resting potential to the action potential, generating an electric field in which a positive charge is accumulated outside the film. Contrary to the direction of the electric field when it was not excited, the energy of the excitatory part was transferred to the non-excited part, and the non-excited part was excited, and an electromagnetic shock was generated to generate an electromagnetic field. In the same way, this new excitatory part in turn propagates the electromagnetic field to the next unexcited part, the mechanism of which is the flow of charged particles on both sides of the membrane, but if we compare the excitatory points of excitement far away, we find this There is no particle exchange at two points. The same thing is that both points have experienced a continuous change of the electric field and generated an electromagnetic field. What caused this? The root cause is actually the propagation of the electromagnetic field caused by the stimulus on the membrane. The cell membrane of a nerve cell “encodes” the stimulus into an electromagnetic field of a certain frequency and intensity, which propagates along the nerve fiber, causing a human sense, producing a mentality. The activity of the electromagnetic field in the nervous system is a psychological activity, and the electromagnetic field is transmitted in the nervous system. The phenomenon caused by processing is a psychological phenomenon (the electromagnetic field is pulled by the nerve to the muscle cells and thus manifests as a change in body state, so we can speculate on the psychological changes by examining the changes in body posture). Psychology is this electromagnetic field. The orderly expansion and movement of electromagnetic fields in the nervous system is psychological activity.
The electromagnetic field is human beings who can’t directly sense it with the senses. It can’t be seen, can’t touch, can’t smell. This is caused by the limitations of human senses, and the psychology can only be produced under the stimulation. Therefore, it makes people feel mysterious and difficult to be human. It is not surprising that the understanding is grasped. However, human psychology, as a product of human response to stimuli, plays an extremely important role in human life and plays a very broad role. Because human beings are ignorant of him, he The great role can not be controlled, but human beings must make a plausible explanation for psychological phenomena, so they are mystified and have produced various hypotheses.
Plants and lower animals do not have a nervous system. The electromagnetic field generated on the cell membrane cannot achieve long-distance propagation on the cell membrane, and it is impossible to achieve directional propagation. The electromagnetic field generated by the membrane under stimulation is only spread in a small range at a short distance, and the electromagnetic field cannot be realized. Standardized and orderly dissemination, so this electromagnetic field is not psychological. Only under the directed conduction and restraint of the nervous system, the electromagnetic field generated on the membrane is psychological. Leaving the nervous system, psychology will not occur and exist.
In short, the essence of psychology is the electromagnetic field of the orderly change that the nervous system forms under the stimulation.
- 5. The unity of psychological phenomena and psychological processes (establishment of sensory psychology)
The feeling is that a certain characteristic of the stimuli enters the “channel” of the nervous system. It “codes” the stimulus into electromagnetic waves of different frequencies and intensities to “travel” in the nervous system, causing corresponding changes in body posture (including behavior and language). The human feeling is very limited. In terms of species, there are only five senses, and humans lack the magnetic sense of pigeons. As far as the level of feeling is concerned, only a certain range of intensity stimuli can be felt. Excessively high and low stimuli can not directly cause us to feel. Humans do not have the dog’s sense of smell (there must be a world we can’t feel).
Perception is a reflection of the combination of several material characteristics that are “collected” by feeling. The representation is a summary of the overall understanding of the material from the past to the present. The imagination is based on the appearance of the past on the possible forms of matter. Prediction. In the four-dimensional space and time, the realization of the visualization of matter is formed in the imaginary stage. This is visual thinking in thinking, and abstract thinking is thinking in abstract features of things. Thinking is the “processing” of the characteristics of things. It can be seen that the feeling is the “foundation” of other psychological phenomena building, and other psychological phenomena are based on the feeling.
Memory is the process of “entering” the characteristics of things into the brain; some of the content entered establishes links with other original contents, and the roots are expressed as “ long-term memory ”, and the memorythat cannot be rooted is based on The length of time that can be recalled is divided into short-term memory and temporary memory.
Consciousness and subconsciousness are the “repositories” of the characteristics of things that pass through the memory process. What can be recalled is the content that is temporarily stored in consciousness, and the content that cannot be recalled is the content that is stored in the subconscious. The relationship between the two is as follows: (1) There is no obvious boundary between consciousness and subconsciousness, but there is a transition period and transition space. (2) In the natural state, consciousness always transitions to the subconscious. (3) Under the intervention of the outside world, people can also turn the subconscious into consciousness, for example, through psychological interviews to know their own lost or lost heart. (4) Although the subconscious is difficult to evoke, it still plays a role and unconsciously changes people’s behavior. (5) The subconscious inventory is far greater and the inventory of consciousness. In the current role, the role of the subconscious is far greater than consciousness. Consciousness is only the tip of the iceberg of the subconscious and consciousness.
Language and behavior are both “body” of human beings, but they are highly organized. Psychology through the nervous system regulates the external muscles of the human body to form a “body”. (1) Interpretation of language: Language is highly organized through the related muscles such as vocal cords and tongues, and emits regular sound waves. Different sound waves are given different meanings, which constitutes spoken language; written language is sound waves with different meanings. Recorded with symbols, this symbol is the written language. (2) Interpretation of behavior: Behavior is a variety of actions produced under psychological control. These behaviors have certain meanings and play a certain role. In addition to language and movement, body posture is very rich in content, the most obvious is the “window of the soul” – eyes. People mainly speculate and detect the psychological changes and effects of people through body changes. He is the appearance of psychological movements.
Competence is the reflection of psychological function on behavioral outcomes. The achievement of behavioral outcomes to achieve the intended purpose indicates high ability and strong mental function. Conversely, it indicates low ability and weak mentality.
Intelligence is the reflection of mental function on the outcome of thinking. If there is a higher level of thinking, it shows that intelligence is high. On the contrary, it means low.
Temperament is the reflection of the state of mind on the human body. Good psychological state makes the temperament excellent, and different mental states are different temperament.
Demand is the psychological reflection of the continuous development and improvement of the organism itself. Animals tend to preserve and perfect themselves. Once reality cannot provide conditions for preserving and perfecting oneself, psychology will have the requirement to satisfy this condition, and the demand will arise. Generate demand for self-survival and development of biological needs .
Motivation refers to the goal that psychological guidance behavior must achieve. Demand is the premise of motivation.
Emotion is a psychological phenomenon caused by the collision between new cognition and existing knowledge. When new cognition conflicts with existing knowledge and even contradicts, psychology will cause negative emotion (through endocrine system?), with intensity and emotion The intensity also increases or decreases, and vice versa causes positive emotions.
Emotion is the cognitive condensation of emotions on something. When you feel that the thing will take the initiative to think that the thing is good or bad, quickly skip the conflict process and produce a fixed emotion. It is also possible to change these emotions or emotions by adjusting the cognition at another higher level.
Learning is an active, systematic and specialized memory process.
Personality refers to the tendency of psychological stability. Visually expressed when you are waiting for someone to pick up.
Personality refers to the tendency of psychological characteristics to show a stable relationship in social relations. Compared with personality, personality focuses on the human knowledge system and the valuesdetermined by it , while personality focuses on the characteristics of the psychology itself.
The various processes and phenomena of psychology are based on feelings. Feelings are the logical starting point of psychological processes and psychological phenomena, all developed from feelings. If the feeling is like “baby”, the psychological process and psychological phenomenon are all kinds of “adults”, and the feeling is the “germ” of the mind. Therefore, all the processes and phenomena of psychology can be reasonably explained from the feeling, so the basis of the unity of psychology lies in the feeling. The essence of sensory psychology is the psychology of great unity.
- Sixth, the psychological reasons for the complexity
(1) Psychological inability to directly perceive. Psychology as an electromagnetic field, the five senses of human beings are not directly perceptible. Only one can realize its greatest commonality—objective reality, while other specific properties cannot be directly grasped.
(B), the power of the psychological and omnipresent. Some people’s places must have a psychological function, and they must have a psychological function to play their indescribable role. Psychological dominating behavior, complicated behavior can be reasonably explained from a psychological perspective. Everything about human activities is behavior, and psychology determines all of this. It can be seen how powerful the psychological function is! And psychology itself has a high degree of complexity. However, due to the limitations of social conditions, people cannot directly grasp the substance of psychology. The reality requires that a reasonable and reasonable interpretation of human behavior must be made. So people “deified” it, and called “psychological” titled “soul” or “spirit” as “the masterpiece” or “will” of God. The meaning of psychology in Greek is “soul.” This concept of deifying the mind makes people fall astray, and it is even more foggy when thinking is psychological.
(C), the strong self-organization of the nervous system. When the mind relies on the nervous system to perform its function, the nervous system itself can be continuously constructed and improved, so that the psychological function can be better played and more powerful, and the psychological phenomenon is more complicated. This is actually a microcosm of the relationship between function and structure. Commonly used hands make the structure of the hand more capable of engaging in regular activities. People who are engaged in heavy physical labor all year round are more generous and crusted; those who run often have well-developed thighs. These are examples of the function-promoting structure development, and the developed structure enables the function to function better.
This relationship between the structure and function of the nervous system is more prominent and obvious. The construction of the nervous system depends to a large extent on the extent and variety of the nervous system. The more the nervous system plays, the more types of functions it exerts, and the more complete its structure, the better it works (the more the brain is used). The more advanced the animal, the more developed its nervous system, and the stronger its function promotes the structure. As far as people are concerned, the brain weight of a newborn baby is only half that of an adult. The other half of the brain development depends mainly on the social environment that is exposed after birth. The environment in which the nervous system works can greatly improve the structure of the brain and increase its weight. The brain of the Indian “wolf boy” is much lower than the average person, no matter its structure.
Brain science also shows that people who are often engaged in certain activities tend to have more developed brain parts that regulate the activity; those who rarely engage in certain activities tend to shrink the brain parts that regulate the activity, even disappearing during human growth!
Memory psychology shows that long-term memory changes the direction, size and even connection of nerve protrusions and axons. Temporary and short-term memory is only an obvious change in nerve cells.
Psychology originally played a role through the nervous system, but at the same time as the role, the nervous system “change” is more conducive to the role of psychological effects. This kind of interaction, mutual improvement and promotion makes the psychological phenomenon more complicated. It is as confusing and difficult to distinguish as a chicken or an egg.
Stimulation is also a function, a force, and all the functions of nature can be attributed to the role of four forces. Stimulation of different intensities and types can promote the development of the nervous system and also strengthen the mental function. Therefore, children who are exposed to more stimuli are smarter.
(d) The complex interaction of the five senses. How do the five senses cause such a complex psychological phenomenon. This is because the nature of seemingly complex things is originally simple and simple, but complicated in the development process. This law exists in the development of many things. The computer capable of complex calculation and transformation of graphics is based on simple binary; the Yijing, the first of the classics, is only haze and impotence. The interaction of the human; the genetic material of thousands of organisms in nature is the different sequential connections and pairs of five base pairs. Vision, pain, touch, taste and hearing can make the mind complex and changeable.
Psychological research field
Psychology encompasses a wide range of research fields and uses many different methods for mental processes and behaviors. Psychology is mainly divided into two major fields of theoretical psychology and applied psychology, which can be divided into many sub-fields, such as educational psychology, abnormal psychology , and management psychology .
Basic research field
Theoretical psychology is opposed to applied psychology, including abnormal psychology , physiological psychology , cognitive psychology, comparative psychology , developmental psychology , health psychology , personality psychology , and social psychology .
Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior to describe, predict, explain, and correct metamorphosis patterns of function. The study of abnormal psychology is applied to clinical psychology to treat patients with mental illness.
Physiological psychology is a discipline that studies the physiological basis and mechanism of psychology from the aspects of human physiology and neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurobiochemistry, etc. It is an important part of basic research in psychology. Based on the results of modern brain science research and modern technology methods, physiological psychology reveals the laws of various psychological phenomena occurring in the anatomy and brain function of the brain. Physiological psychology also includes sub-disciplines such as neuropsychology , psychobiology, and animal psychology.
The so-called cognition refers to various psychological activities carried out in the process of acquiring knowledge, mainly including perception, memory, speech, thinking, etc., which is usually called the cognitive process.
Comparative psychology is the basic theory of animal behavioral evolution, and the psychological branch of various behavioral characteristics of animals at different levels of evolution. It is of great significance to philosophical epistemology, and comparative psychology research can provide basic scientific knowledge of animal behavior evolution for production practice and biomedical research.
Comparative psychology takes the behavior of animals on different evolutionary steps as the research object. In the study, a comparative analysis of the behavior of different species of animals was focused , and this comparison does not exclude people in principle. The purpose is to better understand human beings and their status in nature. Both comparative psychology and animal psychology use animal behavior as the research object, so some Western psychologists regard the two as the same concept and replace it.
Comparative psychology generally uses two methods to collect research materials. This is the field method and laboratory method. The field method is a direct observation of animal behavior in the natural habitat of the animal. In this case, the observer can describe the entire behavior of the animal and its function, but it is not convenient to control the general conditions under which the behavior occurs. The laboratory method overcomes the shortcomings of the field method that cannot control the condition, and it is an excellent complement to the field method.
Developmental psychology is a discipline that studies the law of individual psychological development. The developing individual, no matter in which stage of development, their psychological development includes not only the various processes and characteristics of the psychological, but also the main development aspects and major contradictions. On the basis of comprehensive development, the main contradictions at each stage will be resolved and the next phase will be transitioned. Developmental psychology should study the contradictions and changes in all aspects of individual psychological development. Developmental psychology can be divided into sub-disciplines such as infant psychology, early childhood psychology, school-age children psychology, juvenile psychology , and age psychology. Developmental psychology is not only an important part of the theoretical system of psychology, but also a theoretical basis for educating and educating people in development.
Personality psychology studies patterns of behavior, thinking, and emotions, often referred to as individual personality. Personality theory is divided into different psychological schools.
Quantitative psychology is the application of mathematical models and statistical models in psychological research , as well as the use of statistical methods to analyze and interpret behavioral data.
Psychological statistics is the theory and technique of psychological measurement of knowledge, ability, attitude and personality characteristics in psychology . It is mainly related to educational psychology , personality psychologyand clinical psychology . Mathematical psychology is closely related to experimental psychology and cognitive psychology and physiological psychology .
Social psychology is a discipline that studies the development and regularity of individuals’ psychology, motivation, and interpersonal relationships under specific social and group conditions. Social psychology focuses on the conditions and laws of individual socialization , the formation of individual social motivation and attitude, the general law of the formation and influence of interpersonal relationship and group psychology . Social psychology includes sub-disciplines such as ethnic psychology and family psychology.
Archetypal psychology of the French post-structuralist movement, because of the semiotic research, archetypal criticism started to become a new generation tide, there is a constellation of cultural Chenzu Long’s unconscious archetypal criticism of psychological theory and so on development.
Applied research field
Psychological abnormalities can result from genetic and social maladaptation. Clinical psychology is a disciplinethat studies the causes, pathogenesis, symptoms and diagnosis, prevention and treatment of psychological abnormalities, and divides the special causes of social and medical services from psychotherapy and psychological counseling . Clinical psychology includes both severe psychotic diseases (such as schizophrenia); mild neurological disorders (such as neuropathic anxiety) or depression caused by psychological factors, and physical illnesses caused by psychological factors. (such as high blood pressure). The latter is called psychosomatic medicine ; and from the perspective of treatment, research on the cause, diagnosis and prevention, forming an emerging health psychology .
Educational psychology studies how humans conduct learning, the effects of educational interventions in educational contexts, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. The research results of child psychologists such as Levi Vygotsky , Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner have had a major impact in teaching methods and educational practice.
Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research in the fields of health, disease and health care. However, clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological diseases, while health psychology focuses on health behaviors on a larger scale , including healthy diets, doctor-patient relationships, and patient understanding of health knowledge.
Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology is a kind of applied psychology. It belongs to the category of organizational behavior , mainly the psychological level of employees, customers and consumers . It includes recruitment , selecting employees from many applicants, and including training for employees. , performance evaluation, job satisfaction , work behavior, work stress management .
The main research is the psychology and regularity of students in school learning and teacher teaching. This subject has significant effects in solving learning problems and educational difficulties.
Psychological research method
A method of observing certain behaviors or psychological phenomena under controlled conditions. Divided into, natural experimental method (field experiment) and laboratory experiment method .
- Experimental design : laboratory experiment
- Psychophysical Method: Natural Experiment
Example: Dogs in the Pavlov experiment (restricted reflex). Whenever the light is turned on, the dog secretes a lot of saliva. The experiment involves the Independent Variable and the Dependent Variable. The light is IV and the dog’s saliva is DV. The independent variable is the control variable of the experimenter, and the variable is a variable that changes according to the unique variable. The experimental method emphasizes credibility and repeatability.
In a natural context, a systematic and systematic systematic observation and recording of human behavior is carried out , and then the records are analyzed to find out the methods of psychological activity and the law of development.
Three major schools of psychology and their representatives
Psychoanalytic , behavioral, and humanistic psychology have the greatest influence, and are called the three main forces of psychology.
Representative: Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis was initiated by Freud and has since been revised and developed. The influence is far beyond psychology, so the readership is more extensive.
If you want to have a clear understanding of Freud ‘s thoughts, you can read a few books that introduce his ideas. Charles Brenner’s “Introduction to Psychoanalysis” (Beijing Press, 2000) summarizes the main content of Freud ‘s basic ideas and psychoanalysis, and the elaboration is clear and appropriate, and it is extremely rare in similar books. “Floyd and Marx” (China Renmin University Press, 2004), expounds the relationship between psychoanalysis and Marxism . Although the book was written in the 1930s, it still has its value.
Opinion: The psychoanalytic school is a form of Freud’s life-long mental health practice that has gradually evolved over many years of accumulation and accumulation of human morbid psychology. It focuses on psychoanalysis and treatment, and thus presents a new and unique interpretation of human psychology and personality. The greatest feature of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is to emphasize the instinctive, lustful, and natural aspects of human beings. It first expounds the role of unconsciousness, affirms the role of irrational factors in behavior, and opens up the study of subconsciousness. New field; it attaches importance to the study of personality and the importance of psychological application.
Representatives: John Watson , Bernes Frederick Skinner
The theoretical system of behavioral psychology founded by Watson was popular in the 1920s and profoundly affected the progress of psychology. Behind it, behaviorism has continued to evolve, with Skinner being the most influential.
Behaviorism is one of the main schools of modern American psychology and one of the most influential schools of Western psychology. Behaviorism can be divided into old behaviorism and new behaviorism . The representative of the old behaviorism is headed by Watson. The main representatives of the new behaviorism are Skinner and others.
Watson believes that human behavior is acquired, and the environment determines a person’s behavior pattern . Both normal behavior and morbid behavior are obtained through learning, and can be changed, added or eliminated through learning. It is believed that the regular relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses can be identified, and the stimuli can be predicted according to the stimuli, or the stimuli can be inferred according to the response, and the purpose of predicting and controlling the behavior of animals and humans can be achieved. He believes that behavior is the combination of various body reactions that organisms use to adapt to environmental stimuli. Some are manifested in appearance and some are hidden inside. In his eyes, humans and animals do not differ and follow the same rules.
Skinner believes that psychology is concerned with the behavior of the appearance that can be observed, not the internal mechanism of behavior. He believes that science must be studied within the scope of the natural sciences, and its task is to determine the functional relationship between the stimuli controlled by the experimenter and the response of the organism. Of course, he not only considers the relationship between a stimulus and a reaction, but also considers the conditions that change the relationship between stimulus and response. His formula is: R=f(SoA)
Philosophical background: in the early 20th century, treat them as machines mechanical materialism thought (including Rene Descartes ( Rene Descartes are set in ) mechanistic thinking about the mechanism of the human body, pull o Split the United States and other man seen as the machine’s point of view ), and the new realism of using empirical facts as a tool to write off the subjective and objective boundaries has a great impact on Watson.
Opinion: The main point of behaviorism is that psychology should not study consciousness. It should only study behavior and completely oppose behavior and consciousness. In terms of research methods, behaviorism advocates the use of objective experimental methods rather than introspection .
Representative: Abraham Maslow , Carl Rogers
Maslow’s self-realization theory Maslow believes that the psychological drive of human behavior is not sexual instinct, but human needs. He divides it into two categories, seven levels, like a pyramid, from bottom to top. It is a physiological need , a safety need, a need for belonging and love, a need for respect, a need for understanding, an aesthetic need, and a need for self-realization.
Rogers makes people understand their own nature, no longer relies on external values , people rely on trust, rely on the body valuation process to deal with experience, eliminate the values imposed on him by internal environment and let people express their ideas freely. And feelings, by their own will to determine their own behavior, master their own destiny, repair the self-realization potential of the destruction, and promote the healthy development of personality.
Opinion: Humanism opposes the vulgarization of human psychology, the tendency to animalize, the psychoanalytic school that treats people as sinisters, the psychoanalytic school that treats people as victims , and the physical and chemical The behavioral school of the object. Advocating the study of issues of great significance to human progress, caring for human values and dignity.