Fermentation is a partial oxidation process that does not require oxygen and leads to the formation of an organic compound. Depending on these end products, there are Different types of Fermentation.
What is fermentation?
This is a catabolic process of partial oxidation which does not require the presence of oxygen and leads to the formation of an organic compound.
It was discovered by Louis Pasteur who described it as “Life without air” or “Life without air”. Fermentation is usually done by yeasts, although some metazoans and protozoans do as well.
This process is anaerobic, the final electron acceptor of NADH generated during glycolysis is not oxygen, but an organic compound which will be reduced to oxidize NADH to NAD+. The organic compound that is reduced is a derivative of the previously oxidized substrate.
What are the types of fermentation?
Fermentation is an enzyme-catalyzed metabolic process in which organisms convert starch or sugar into alcohol or acid, releasing energy anaerobically. The science of fermentation is called zymology.
Only one type of product formation
more than one product is formed
There are several types of fermentation Based on the resulting end product, fermentation can be classified as follows:
This type of fermentation takes place in the presence of fungi and bacteria that transform glucose into energy. This process produces a waste product called lactic acid, which results in a distinctive bitter taste.
These acids are found in yogurt, legumes and cabbage. Bacteria and fungi that we consume on a daily basis. The main bacteria and fungi responsible for this process are Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus.
This is a process carried out by bacteria which change ethyl alcohol into acetic acid. This acid is found in substances such as wine and vinegar and has a distinctive odor. The bacterium that carries out this process is known as Acetobacter. Unlike other fermentations, this one requires large volumes of oxygen.
Note that unlike other fermentations, this one requires a large volume of oxygen.
This process occurs due to lack of oxygen. Microorganisms convert carbohydrate-containing substances into substances such as alcohol, ethanol, carbon dioxide and others. There are several bacteria that carry out this process, but the best known are Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Zymomonas Mobilis.
Also called Pasteur fermentation, it is a type of fermentation caused by the total absence of oxygen. Converts carbohydrates into butyric acid. This process is characterized by a putrid, fetid odor. The bacteria that carry out this process are called Clostridium butyricum.
Considered a variant of lactic acid fermentation. It is produced by enterobacteria which produce carbon dioxide and butanediol. The bacteria that carry out this process are Klebsiella, Serratia and Erwinia.
In this process the main substances involved are propionic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide and succinic acid. The bacteria convert these substances into propionic acid. It is used to prepare foods such as cheeses. These bacteria are considered non-sporing.
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