We explain what proteins are and the types of proteins that exist. What are they for, their structural levels and protein foods.
What is protein?
Proteins are the association of several amino acids placed in a linear chain . They contain carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen.
The amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds , joining the amino end of one with the carboxyl end of another amino acid. According to the arrangement of these amino acids in the chain, that is, the order, is how the DNA will be arranged , each person’s own genetic code.
Types of proteins
Proteins are very important for the organism, since they participate in all the processes carried out by it. According to their chemical and physical composition, proteins can be classified into:
- Simple proteins. Also known as holoproteids, they are made up only of amino acids or their derivatives.
- Composite or conjugated proteins. heteroproteides, are formed by various substances present in their amino acids.
- Proteins that have been denatured previously. by some external agent such as heat, they lose their structures adapting to the previous structural level .
What do proteins serve for?
Proteins are essential for the human body and its growth, among its functions we find:
- Structural. The tissues carry a certain structure and stiffness which proteins, for example, collagen, are responsible for.
- There are also fibrous and globular proteins in the cytoskeleton of the cells giving a structure to their composition. This is one of the most important functions they possess.
- Immunological Antibodies are proteins that act as a defense against external agents or infections.
- Motorboat. Myosin and actin are proteins that allow movement , in addition, myosin is part of the contractile ring in cell division, allowing cytokinesis (separation of cells by strangulation).
- Enzyme They accelerate certain metabolisms and are part of the transport of gases. Some examples of enzymatic proteins are pepsin and sucrose.
- Homeostatic They maintain the regulation of the pH of the organism.
In addition to these functions, proteins are raw materials for other substances found in our body, for example, vitamins , digestive juices or hormones.
Structural levels of proteins
- The first of these is the chain-shaped junction of the amino acids and the peptide bond catalyzes the junction.
- The second structure can be of two forms according to the protein, alpha helix or folded sheet or beta sheet. In this secondary structure, hydrogen bonding joints stabilize the joints.
- The tertiary structure of a protein refers to the arrangement of said protein in space, with Van der Waals junctions, sulfur bridges, ionic bonds and hydrophobic bonds that maintain its structure.
- Not all proteins have a quaternary structure, in fact, most of them do not. These are several peptide chains, which together form a multimer. The joints that stabilize it are the same as those of the tertiary structure.
When a protein loses some of the structural levels it possessed, it is said to be denatured, either by heat, alkalysis or certain acids, thus losing its biological function.
If what you are looking for are high-protein foods to eat a healthy diet and in high protein amounts, the shakes will give us much of the daily source of protein that we should eat . Eating a certain amount of protein-rich foods is the basis of any healthy diet.
There are two types of protein-rich foods, those of plant origin and those of animal origin. Highly protein foods of animal origin are eggs, fish, dairy products and red and white meats. Nuts, soybeans, cereals and legumes are high-protein foods of plant origin.