Physics

Differences Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

we explain that a permanent magnet is made from a “hard” magnetic material that maintains its magnetism over long periods of time. The magnetism in an electromagnet is created by the current running through a coil of insulated wire that is wound around a piece of “soft” magnetic material. On the other hand, in an electromagnet, the magnetic field is created through electric current in a wire-wound coil and strengthened by a soft-iron core. As soon as you turn off the power, the soft-iron core loses its magnetization.

Differences Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet in Tabular Form:

Electromagnet Permanent magnet
Electromagnet produces a magnetic field as long as the current flows through its coils. A permanent magnet produces a permanent magnetic field.
An electromagnet can produce a very strong magnetic force. A permanent magnet produces a comparatively weak force of attraction.
The magnetic field strength can be changed in an electromagnet.  The magnetic field strength cannot be changed in this type of magnet.
It can be easily demagnetized by switching off the current. Permanent magnet cannot be easily demagnetized.

 

What are Electromagnets? Explained

Electromagnets

It is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current. A wire with an electric current (charged electrons) produces a magnetic field in its surroundings. The strength of the magnetic field depends on the intensity of the current and the shape of the wire. Each wire with a current flow is practically an electromagnet.

Magnets work in hundreds of applications around you daily. Depending on the use, the magnet could be a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. Permanent magnets and electromagnets both possess different characteristics and benefits.

Properties of Magnets

  • The permanent magnet does not have electric current flow through it.
  • Electromagnets are made by passing an electric current through them.
  • The strength of the magnetic field in permanent magnets cannot be changed.
  • The strength of the electromagnets can be changed by changing the amount of current in the magnet.
  • The direction of the magnetic field cannot be changed.
  • The direction of a magnetic field can be changed in electromagnets.

Electromagnet and Bar Magnet

The term “magnetically soft” refers to the fact that mechanically soft iron loses its magnetization, while carbon-enriched, mechanically hard iron (steel) keeps part of its magnetization. This is called remanence. “Remanere” comes from the Latin “remain”. Material with a high remanence is called “magnetically hard”.

How does an Electromagnet Differ from a Permanent Magnet?Differences Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

In permanent magnets, the magnetic fields are also created through currents. But these currents are not macroscopic currents, in which charged particles flow in one direction. They are microscopic electric currents, which, in the case of ferromagnetism, are created through certain electrons rotating around themselves in the material (electron spins). An electron spin can be viewed as a microscopic small circulating current. while Electromagnet produces a strong magnetic field as long as the current flows through its coils.

How can You Make an Electromagnet Stronger?

The strength of a magnetic field of an electromagnet depends on the core material, the number of solenoid windings, and the intensity of the current. With a high enough amperage, the electromagnet can develop a significantly stronger magnetic field than a permanent magnet.

What is a Permanent Magnet? Explained

A permanent magnet is any magnetic material whose atoms have been permanently aligned to create a persistent magnetic field. The magnetizing process occurs during the manufacturing

Permanent magnets can be made of several different materials, including ceramic, alnico, samarium-cobalt, and neodymium. Neodymium and samarium-cobalt magnets are also classified as rare earth magnets. These magnets have superior holding strength in comparison to the size of the material.

Read Also: Electromagnet Vs. Permanent Magnet

Types of Permanent Magnets:

The five types of permanent magnets are alnico (AlNiCo), samarium cobalt (SmCo), ferrite (Fe), flexible rubber, and the strongest permanent magnets, neodymium magnets (NdFeB).

How does a permanent magnet work?

a permanent magnet works by the magnetic field created by the electrons that surround the nuclei of their atoms. in all types of permanent magnets, each domain has its own north pole and south pole. When a ferromagnetic material is not magnetized its domains point in random directions and their magnetic fields cancel each other out. To make a permanent magnet, ferromagnetic material is heated at high temperature, while exposed to a strong, external magnetic field.

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