We explain what school dropout is, what factors are involved in this phenomenon, its causes, consequences and how it can be avoided.
What is the school desertion?
By dropping out of school, dropping out of school or leaving school early is understood as a departure from the formal education system, before having achieved the final degree corresponding to the completion of their studies. This phenomenon can occur in both education primary and secondary.
Due to its important consequences in the cultural and professional development of the community , there are numerous local, regional and international initiatives dedicated to combat it.
In addition, school dropout occurs both in countries of the industrialized world and in those belonging to the so-called Third World . The difference is that in the first case it usually occurs in tertiary or post-secondary education processes, while in the second case throughout the school chain: primary, secondary and tertiary.
Types of dropout
There are five forms of school dropout, which are:
- Early dropout . When the student has been accepted into a school program and never goes to the school, nor completes his classes.
- Early drop – out . When the student leaves the study program during the first four semesters.
- Late dropout . When the student leaves the curriculum of the fifth semester onwards.
- Total defection . When the student completely abandons an educational plan and never returns to it.
- Partial dropout . When the student takes a temporary leave of a certain duration and then resume their studies.
Causes of dropout
The school dropout does not have a simple or unique cause, but is due to various factors, both conditioning (that facilitate or complicate the study) and determinants (which prevent or allow the study to be flat).
In both cases, it is usually a set of social, cultural and economic causes that converge for students to drop out of school and devote themselves to something else. Attrition does not occur simply because people do not want to study , but it is a complex phenomenon that betrays other deeper reasons in society .
Consequences of school dropout
School dropout impoverishes the culture and educational level of society , making it more vulnerable in many ways. This is because the formal educational apparatus is much more than simply a way of incorporating practical or usable knowledge into the student.
On the contrary, when leaving formal education, the student also loses the opportunity to take advantage of what the system offers as an early socialization process , of education in civic, moral , democratic values , which the individual will then put into practice during adulthood. , when it comes to linking with others.
To this, obviously, the interruption of the professional educational process must be added, which truncates the possibilities of overcoming the individual , forcing him to live from the exercise of less profitable, more sacrificed or even illegal work, since he lacks more complex tools to be useful to society in other ways.
Factors involved in school dropout
The school dropout factors are the elements and conditions that trigger it. They may be:
- Socioeconomic factors . Such as low family income and lack of school support, the need for early work to support themselves or the total lack of school incentives (supplies, books, public institutes, etc.).
- Personal factors . Those of emotional, motivational type, that respond to very particular conditions of the individual.
- Psychological factors . As difficulties for learning , autism, etc.
- Institutional factors . Lack of opportunities for study or institutional helplessness, such as the absence of quotas, the absence of scholarships, etc.
- Family factors . It is very difficult to continue studies if you live within a family dysfunctional, violent, inarticulate, where they have presence abuse, drug addiction or death .
- Social factors . Vulnerability to criminal situations, belonging to criminal gangs, student drug addiction, etc.
How to avoid school dropout?
The fight against dropping out of school implies a joint fight against all the factors that favor it , such as poverty, exclusion, drug addiction or criminality. So it is not a simple task. However, good steps in that direction are as follows:
- Promote good educational environments , in which students have real opportunities for growth and learning: material resources, decent facilities, teachers prepared for teaching , an environment free of bullying and other harmful socializations, etc.
- Offer reintegration opportunities . These can be late or evening curricula, adult education, educational promotion plans, scholarship offers or study aids, etc.
- Invest in public education . It is very difficult, especially in countries in process of development , consider whether a person has nothing to eat. For this, the State can invest part of its budget in quality public education, which offers free opportunities to those who do not have them.
- Promote international aid programs . There are international institutions and sponsorships that combat school dropout, and which can be accessed if you have the necessary information.
School dropout in Mexico
The school dropout figures in Mexico increase as the age of the students increases , according to the 2015 Intercensal Survey of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (Inegi). Thus, between 6 and 11 years, 98% of infants attend school, but as the age increases to the range of 12 to 17, the dropout rate also increases.
In 2015, in fact, 2.2 million teenagers dropped out of school (16.2%). The main reasons for such attrition are lack of interest in the study, lack of aptitude or resources for income (48.3%) and poverty (14.2%).