We explain what demography is, how it is classified, its importance and other characteristics. Also, what are the demographic data.
What is demography?
Demography is the science that studies human populations statistically , that is, based on numerical data and calculations that allow analyzing various aspects such as size, density, distribution and vitality rates of a population.
The statistics used are obtained through scientific evidence instruments (databases, surveys, censuses and others).
The Arab Ibn Jaldún (1332-1406) is considered the founder of demography , for being the first to include statistical data in his research. He was followed by the German Johann Peter Süssmilch (1707-1767) and the British John Graunt (1620-1674) and Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1934) for important contributions to the discipline.
Demography analyzes a wide variety of data from a population (age, sex, race, etc.) according to certain variables , such as:
- The size. It refers to the total number of individuals and is also called ” absolute population .”
- The density . It refers to the average number of inhabitants per square kilometer of a territory.
- The distribution. It refers to the number of concentration level of inhabitants in the different regions of a population.
- Vitality rates It refers to the statistical number of birth , fertility, migrations , mortality , etc.
Types of demography
There are two general types of demography that are usually related in an investigation :
- Static It is the statistical analysis that examines the size (set of inhabitants) and structure (made up of variables of age, gender, race, etc.) of the population at a given time .
- Dynamic . It is the statistical analysis that analyzes the variation of factors over time, such as birth, fertility, migration and emigration, population aging, etc.
Importance of demography
Contemporary demography is concerned with analyzing the most diverse problems, such as:
- The “population explosion.”
- The interaction between the population and its economic development .
- The effects of birth control.
- Urban congestion
- The immigration illegal.
- The workforce
The statistical analysis of these problems provides conclusions that allow for better decision making and forecasting on certain issues, for example, around health, social customs or economic policies .
Demographic data are indicators that allow a population to be statistically investigated , such as age, gender, race, marital status, income, profession, socioeconomic status, etc.
Depending on the objective of the analysis, demographic data are interrelated with other disciplines or general variables such as biometrics, psychometrics or genetics , to understand health states, IQ, genetic code, among other characteristics of the population.