what are programming languages?
we explain that Programming languages are the set of words, symbols, and codes used to write programs is called program language. There are different programming languages are available for writing different types of programs. Through which some languages are specially used for writing business programs and some are used for writing scientific programs. There are two main types of computer programming languages also known as low-level languages and high-level languages.
What is low level language?
It is a type of programming language which are near to computer hardware and far from human languages. A computer can understand these languages very easily. Writing programs in a low language requires a deep knowledge of the internal structure of computer hardware. There are two types of low level languages i.e. machine language and assembly language.
- Machine language
- Assembly language
what is Machine language:
The main type of language in which instructions are written in binary form is known as machine language. Machine language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. Machine language is the most fundamental language of the computer.
machine language example:
The programs written in the machine language can be executed very fast by the computer. Those programs written in machine language are machine dependent. Every computer has its machine language system. Machine language is difficult to understand. Writing and modifying programs in machine language takes a lot of time. This language is also famous as first-generation language.
what is Assembly language?
This language is a low level language. It is one step higher than machine language. Symbols are used instead of binary codes in the assembly language. Those symbols are called mnemonics. For example, sub instruction is used to subtract two numbers.
assembly language example?
It is also famous as a symbolic language. The programs written in assembly language are easier to write and easily modify than machine language. This language is mostly used in writing system software. Assembly language is also famous as second generation language.
Differences Between High Level Language and Low Level Language:
High Level Language:
This is a type of programming language that is close to human languages is called high-level language. These languages are very easy to understand. Instructions of these languages are written in English like words such as keyboard, monitor, mouse, LCD’s, etc. That program written in a high language is easier to write and modify. High-level language is divided into 3 categories:
- Procedural language
- Object oriented language
- Non procedural language
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What are procedural language and examples?
These languages are also famous as third-generation languages or 3GL. In procedural languages, a program has predefined the sets of instructions. Devise i.e. computer, laptop, mobile etc., executes these instructions in the same sequence in which these instructions are written. The number of instruction in this language tells the computer what to do and how to do.
Procedural language Advantages:
- Program statements are similar to English and are easy to learn.
- Short time is required to write these programs.
- These programs are easy to understand and modify.
Procedural language Disadvantages:
- These programs execute more slowly.
- The languages use computer resources less efficiently.
What are the Most Famous Procedural Languages?
Basics stand for Beginner All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It was created in 1960. Basic was used mainly by students to use the computer for solving simple problems. It is very easy to understand and modify. Basic has a key advantage to widely used for education purposes.
It stands for FORMULA TRANSLATION. FORTRAN is mainly used for engineering applications and scientific use.
It stands for common business-oriented language. COBOL is specially designed for business application. COBOL was developed in the 1960s. The programs written in COBOL are very lengthy but easy to read, write, understand and maintain.
PASCAL Language is used for both scientific and business applications. PASCAL’s name was assigned in the honor of a French Mathematician Pascal.
C language is a famous high-level language. C language was developed by Dennis Ritchie at AT and T Bell Laboratories in 1972. C Language was written as a part of the UNIX operating system. It is also known as middle-level language.
What are Non Procedural Languages?
These languages are also known as fourth-generation languages or 4GL. In these languages, the user only needs to tell the computer that what to do not how to do it. They can be used by the non-technical users to perform specific tasks. Non-procedure languages accelerate the programming process and reduce coding errors. 4GL is normally used in database applications and report generation.
What is meant by SQL?
SQL stands for structured Query Language. SQL is the most popular database query language. It was developed by IBM. It is the national standard by the American national standards institute. SQL works with database programs like MS-ACCESS, DB2, INFORMIX, MS SQL SERVER, ORACLE, Sybase, etc.
What is RPG?
RPG stands for REPORT PROGRAM GENRATOR. RPG was developed in the 1960s by IBM. RPG is used to generate business reports. RPG is also popular as a nonprocedural language. Is mostly used with IBM mid-range Computers.
what are Object Oriented Languages?
Object-Oriented Programming is a technique in which programs are written on the basis of objects. An object is a collection of data and functions. An object may represent a person, thing or place, etc. in the real world. In Object-Oriented Languages data and all possible functions on data are grouped together. OOP is easy to learn and modify. C ++ AND Java are the two most famous object oriented languages.
Differences Between Procedural language and Non procedural language:
|Procedural language/3GL||Non procedural language/4GL|
|It tells the computer “what to do and how to do”.||It tells the computer “what to do not to do”.|
|It is difficult to learn.||Non procedural languages are easy to learn.|
|It is difficult to debug.||It is easy to debug.|
|Procedural language requires a large number of procedural instructions.||Non procedural languages are requires a few non procedural instructions.|
|It is typically file oriented.||It is typical database-oriented.|
|It provides many programming capabilities.||It provides fewer programming capabilities.|
|It is normally used by professional programmers.||It can be used professional and non technical users.|
Differences between High level Language and Low level language:
|High level Language||Low level language|
|These languages are easy to learn.||These languages are difficlut to learn.|
|These languages are near to human languages.||These languages are far from human languages.|
|It needs a translator.||It does not require any translator.|
|Programs in high level languages are slow in execution.||Programs in low level language are fast in execution.|
|Programs in high level language are easy to modify.||Programs in low level languages are difficult to modify.|
|It does not provide much facility at the hardware level.||Low level languages provide facility to write programs at the hardware level.|
|Deep knowledge of hardware is not required to write programs.||Deep knowlode of hardware is required to write programs.|
|These languages are normally used to write application programs.||These languages are normally used to write hardware programs.|
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