What is an information system?
When talking about an information system (IS), it refers to an ordered set of mechanisms that are aimed at the management of data and information , so that they can be recovered and processed easily and quickly.
Every information system is composed of a series of interconnected and interacting resources , arranged in the most convenient way based on the informative purpose outlined, such as collecting personal information, processing statistics, organizing a file, etc. These resources can be:
- Human resources : Personnel of varied nature and skills .
- Data : Any type of massive information that needs to be organized.
- Activities : Procedures, steps to follow, work stations, etc.
- Computer resources : Those determined by technology .
It should be noted that an information system is not the same as a computer system, although the latter often constitute the bulk of an IS’s resources. But there are many other methods for information systems, which do not necessarily go through information technology .
It can help you: Database .
Types of information systems
From a business or organizational point of view, information systems can be classified into:
- Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) . Also known as operational management systems, they collect information relevant to the transactions of the organization , that is, its operation.
- Executive Information Systems (EIS) . It monitors the managerial variables of a specific area of the organization, from the internal and external information of the same.
- Management Information Systems (MIS) . They contemplate the general information of the organization and understand it as a whole.
- Decision support systems (DSS) . Oriented to the intra and extra organizational information processing, for the support in the conduction of the company .
There are other specialized or applied forms of SI, depending on the specific field and the specific functions expected of each one. It would be too extensive to list them all.
Elements of an information system
It is generally considered that all SIs contain a diversity of elements that can be classified into five major categories:
- Financial information . Those linked to the capital and to the available assets of the organization.
- Technological elements . Those that have to do with specialized machinery and the capacity for automated processing of information.
- Human elements . Basically, staff, both specialized and managerial, as non-specialized or common.
- Material elements . It refers to the location of the system, its physical support and location.
- Administrative elements . Those related to processes , driving mechanics, permits, reports, transactions, etc.
Examples of information system
Some examples of SI can be:
- Quality control systems , in which feedback is requested from the client and the results are statistically evaluated to produce results interpretable by management.
- The databases of a library , where the thick volume of documents (books, magazines, theses , etc.) of the library is contained , in order to locate and retrieve each one as quickly and precisely as possible.
- Spreadsheets , in which raw information is entered and organized in a quantifiable way to obtain financial driving guidelines.