We explain what the administrative management is, what are its stages and classification. In addition, its principles and why it is important.
What is the administrative address?
In business administration, it is known as management (or directly as administrative management), to one of the most important stages of the administrative process , in which the knowledge acquired is applied to carry out relevant decision making . Said in simpler terms, the administrative direction is equivalent to the captain of a ship.
Administrative management is a complicated and highly responsible task , generally carried out by managers and other leadership and authority figures within organizations , and which aims to ensure that the objectives set in advance are met, which means dealing with unforeseen, correct the operation of the organization on the fly and often make strategic decisions.
For this reason, management is closely related to control and feedback within the administrative process : only by handling the necessary information and arising from the evaluation of the functioning of an organization, can informed and sensible decisions be made that have a greater probability of success. . That is why business leadership is not too different from the political leadership of a nation, although both things handle very different elements and have different principles.
Stages of administrative management
Broadly speaking, we can outline the stages of administrative management in:
- Decision making. In the event of some type of unforeseen, challenging situation or evaluation of the organization, the need for efficient decision-making is imposed, which in turn passes through certain stages:
- Define the problem. That is, to understand the situation, the challenges that have arisen and / or the objectives that are pursued and that will give us the initial orientation regarding how to deal with the problem .
- Evaluate the alternatives. Every problem can be approached from different points of view and can be solved or faced in different, more aggressive, more patient, more sagacious ways, etc. Before deciding on any one, all options should be reviewed.
- Make a decision. Finally, we must opt for some option and apply it in a specific way, taking into account a panorama of possible consequences and some kind of anticipated forecasts.
- Integration. This stage involves the provision of the elements and resources necessary to execute the decision previously made, also through various strategies, such as:
- I recruitment . Enlargement or replacement of human capital with the necessary personnel to carry out the work entailed in the decision.
- Training . Provide the existing staff with theoretical, conceptual or practical tools to carry out the tasks involved in the decision.
- Renewal. Acquisition of new materials, new equipment, new tools, etc., in order to carry out the decision.
- Motivation. Entrepreneurship and team morale are also essential to achieve the objectives and materialize the decided plan, so the management must carry out a review of the motivational dynamics of the organization and employ new ones, reinforce existing ones or eliminate counterproductive ones.
- Communication . Very related to motivation, communication both internally and externally must always be in accordance with the initial decisions that were made, so that each segment of the organization is clear about what is expected of it and that each client knows What changes to expect from the organization.
- Leadership and supervision. Not only must decisions be made and ensure that they are implemented correctly, but a feedback and control channel must be kept open that allows to perceive the effectiveness of the changes introduced, that identifies complications, that perceives threats and opportunities derived from the change, in Finally, provide the management with the necessary information to be able to make decisions again and keep the circuit going.
Types of administrative address
There are various forms, types or styles of administrative management, which have to do directly with the type of leadership exercised, and which should be considered as guidelines, rather than defined and concrete categories. We talk about:
- Autocratic address That in which the authority imposes its rules, criteria and decisions without consulting its subordinates at all, so it tends to generate tense and dictatorial work environments, in which discipline and insecurity can go hand in hand.
- Paternalistic direction. It is a relaxation of the autocratic direction, in which the hierarchical positions are involved in the work of their subordinates and even in their personal lives, but always from a position of power and authority, as if they were a kind of tutor. It is usually applied to organizations with very young or training staff.
- Direction Laissez-faire (“let do”). A management model that intervenes very little in the performance of its subordinates, allowing them a very high degree of autonomy and decision, which can make them employees with high initiative, or it can lead to confusion and disorder.
- Democratic leadership It is inspired by the principles of equal opportunities and mass consultation to make decisions, without sacrificing the hierarchical structure of the organization. It is usually the one with the best results in a diverse or broad organization.
Principles of administrative management
The management exercise is based on a series of fundamental principles, which are:
- Interest coordination Since an organization involves an organized set of human beings working around a common goal, management must keep the focus on the latter, converging individual or sectoral objectives into a common macroproject.
- Impersonality of the command. Organizations have structures and hierarchies that should not depend on who exercises them, but should be impersonal, objective, that is, they do not depend on sympathies and considerations, but on the internal logic of the organization.
- Direct and indirect supervision. Management can be exercised, at the same time, in close communication with subordinates, that is, providing them with the guidelines and information they need to be motivated and productive; and in hierarchical communication, through a hierarchical or bureaucratic structure that allows efficient use of information and timely decision making, without absolutely everything must reach management to approve.
- Use and resolution of conflicts. The management of any organization will face conflicting situations to which it must be able to solve or, better yet, which must be reconverted into advantageous or profitable situations, through a change and variability management, instead of an excessive adherence to the norm. .
Importance of administrative management
Management is vital for proper administrative functioning . She is responsible for executing the projected guidelines in previous phases (planning and organization) to obtain the best possible performance from the organizational structure .
Good management is key not only in business forecasting and anticipation, but in the motivation of human capital , through efficient communication, sensible driving and a spirit away from tyranny and other human defects.
A good administrative conduct, in fact, includes the administrative process as an organized and hierarchical whole, and is qualified to carry out the appropriate changes that make it last or that approximate it to the fulfillment of its concrete objectives. Any administrative process without direction is prone to disorder and disintegration.
As well as management, administrative control is a function of the administrative process that consists in the evaluation of performance , that is, in the comparison of the results obtained during the process and the expectations that it had. This implies the measurement (and design or selection of measurement strategies) of the variables, the gathering of relevant information, internal and external research, among other similar methodologies.