We explain what ecology is and what are the branches of study of this science. In addition, what is the protection of the environment.
What is ecology?
Ecology is the science that is dedicated to the study of living things in general , their relationship with the environment in which they live, abundance and distribution that exists in a particular area or region. Thus, for its study, the interaction of living beings with the environment in which they find themselves takes on a fundamental role.
On the other hand, abiotic factors are taken into account as study factors within it , such as, for example, the weather ; and biotic factors , such as certain organisms ( bacteria , viruses , etc.) that live in the same place.
This type of interaction can be studied in different ways:
- Individual study Of each organism with the surrounding environment.
- Population study. Where there is an interrelation of living beings belonging to the same species.
- Study of communities. That is, the relationship between different populations that inhabit the same area.
- Ecosystem study. Where the study of the communities plus their interaction with the surrounding environment is taken into account.
- Study of the biosphere . It would be the study of all living beings in general.
What are the branches of ecology?
Ecology is one of the sciences that may have the most branches , some of the most important are: urban, microbial, landscape , recreation, populations, evolutionary, and social. For example, when talking about urban ecology, we refer to the branch that focuses on the study of urban conglomerations, their members and the relationship between them and the environment.
On the other hand, microbial ecology is the one that focuses on the study of microorganisms , always in their natural habitat . This branch has allowed the discovery of fundamental elements such as, for example, that the activity of microorganisms in the terrestrial ecosystem is the cause of the soil being fertile.
When, instead, landscape ecology is taken, the interrelation of two great sciences is being involved: geography and biology . Thus, the study is based on the observation of natural landscapes, and the transformations that the action of the human being produced in this.
The ecology of recreation specifically analyzes the relationship between man and the environment , always taking it in a recreational context . In this way, specific sites for recreation such as trails, corridors, games and areas of dispersion, etc., will be put under study.
When talking about the ecology of populations, it is where demography also comes into play , a branch that will be in charge of the study of the populations themselves of the same species, where factors such as number will be analyzed and taken into account of members, distribution in sex and age, birth rate and mortality, among other population indicators .
Finally, evolutionary ecology is based on the study of the same population over time , so it will be essential to evaluate the different transformations that occur over time, and the changes that occur there as a result of Different influence factors.
In the case of social ecology, reference is made to the branch of ecology that involves issues of the order of philosophy , studying the behavior of living beings as part of a group in a given area.
Today and for many years since a greater awareness was generated about the effects produced by abrupt changes in the environment caused by pollution , ecology is on the political agenda of all national states . In turn, it is the axis of many international groups and environmental associations that help defend through direct actions to the environment.
On the other hand, they are also dedicated to spreading a message about what are the most harmful practices for the environment and propose new techniques for resource use, the use of recyclable materials, among other issues.
Ecologists make complaints at the planetary level , national states sign international treaties in favor of more efficient industrial production that does not entail hazards to natural resources or the life of communities . The truth is that mass production pursues the intention of increasing profit , and this in most cases, without taking into account that its effects alter the life of ecosystems irreversibly and irreparably.