Biology is the science responsible for the study of life and living beings. Like all science, it is based on the scientific method to understand biological phenomena. Biology is not an independent science, it requires other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry and mathematics.
The word biology derives from the Greek terms bios (life) and logia (treaty, science). In order to understand the field of action of biology, we must then define what life is and what characterizes it.
Characteristics of life according to biology
From the point of view of biology, life is characterized by having an orderly structure , with capacity to divide and reproduce .
The growth and development of living beings are a consequence of metabolism , that is, of all the chemical reactions with which nutrients are taken advantage of and waste is eliminated. All this implies regulatory mechanisms to keep internal conditions stable.
Last but not least, all living beings react to stimuli from their environment, which has allowed their evolution over time .
Importance of biology
Biology is the key that allows us to discover the mysteries of life through the exploration of the connections between living beings. Thanks to biology, we know that microorganisms can be complex structures and that our own body is a wonderful machine.
Biology has contributed enormously to the improvement of health, not only of human beings but also of our domestic animals. With medications, such as antibiotics, you can fight bacterial infections that were once fatal.
Vaccines are also a great advance for humanity. Thanks to mass vaccinations, infant mortality has been reduced by almost 95%.
Through molecular biology, plant species such as rice and tomato are being improved. With modifications in their genetic information, their nutritional content can be increased and made more resistant to diseases and droughts. In this way, biology is contributing to the future of life on planet Earth.
Biology is a very extensive field of study, so it is divided into several branches to improve its area of understanding. Thus, each branch of biology, specializes in a specific topic, although there is also a strong collaboration between the different branches. For example, paleobotany is the branch of paleontology that is dedicated to identifying the fossils of plants.
There are many divisions of biology, the best known are:
Zoology studies animals, classifies them according to their characteristics. Zoology also presents subdivisions such as invertebrate zoology and animal physiology.
Study the plants. The current botanist corresponds to what were formerly known as herbalists.
Microbiology studies the structure and functioning of microorganisms, unicellular living beings such as bacteria.
Palaeontology is dedicated to studying the evolution of life through fossils.
Physiology studies the physical and chemical processes that allow cells to function.
The neurologist studies the nervous system, its structures, functions and diseases.
Ecology is responsible for the study of the interaction between living beingssand the environment in which they live . The professional who is dedicated to ecology is the ecologist.