Biology is the science of life, its name is conformed by the Greek roots bios (life) and logos (study or treatise). Biology is dedicated to the study of living beings and everything related to them.
Biology is one of the sciences with the most impact and importance in life and history. It is, in other words, the science in charge of studying all living organisms, which describes and classifies their morphology as well as the phenomena that occur within them.
The word biology is made up of the Greek terms bios, which means life, and logos whose meaning is study. It consists of a natural science that deals with examining the qualities of living organisms, concentrating on their origin and progress.
Biology, like all science, is based on a study method, specifically an experimental method, which is promoted by the reproduction of any phenomenon that can be observed in order to later understand the mechanisms that were carried out in it.
Branches of biology or auxiliary sciences.
You can speak of biology as a modern science, pioneer of a myriad of much larger or specific sciences such as medicine.
It can be said then that sciences such as medicine and many other specifications had as a starting point all the investigations and resources found through classical and standard biology.
Biology is a very extensive field of study, so it is divided into several branches to improve its area of understanding. Thus, each branch of biology, specializes in a specific topic, although there is also a strong collaboration between the different branches. For example, paleobotany is the branch of paleontology that is dedicated to identifying the fossils of plants.
There are many divisions of biology, the best known are:
Some of the branches derived from biology are the following:
Study the plants. The current botanist corresponds to what were formerly known as herbalists.
Zoology studies animals, classifies them according to their characteristics. Zoology also presents subdivisions such as invertebrate zoology and animal physiology.
Microbiology studies the structure and functioning of microorganisms, unicellular living beings such as bacteria.
Ecology is responsible for the study of the interaction between living beingssand the environment in which they live . The professional who is dedicated to ecology is the ecologist.
Palaeontology is dedicated to studying the evolution of life through fossils.
The neurologist studies the nervous system, its structures, functions and diseases.
Physiology studies the physical and chemical processes that allow cells to function.
- Marine biology and mathematics.
What was the origin of biology as a science?
The origins of biology as a method of scientific study, that is, as a study of biological processes, dates back to the time even of ancient Greece, but it was not until 1800 when the term “biology” was first made known , when it was used independently by various scientists and naturalists of the time.
First studies of biology as a science.
There are biological studies dating back to Ayurveda, which used to be the medicine used in Ancient Egypt. Aristotle and Galen should also be mentioned , who is considered one of the most recognized doctors in the history of man.
Then, when the Renaissance and the Modern Age arrived, waves of curiosity and needs to understand the human body began, which gave biology a boost and led it to forge itself as the modern biology that is known today.
Some anecdotes tell that, between 1840 and 1850, in the 19th century, biology was a very popular topic of interest.
It is at this time that the anatomy classes in hospitals were born, as well as pathological anatomy, only that common and conventional classes were lagging behind, at this time both students and teachers were so fascinated by the human body that corpses were stolen from their graves in order to study and understand each biological component of the body.
Principles of biology.
Biology, unlike other branches of science such as physics or chemistry that usually describe some processes through laws, theorems and theories, it does not usually explain biological processes described mathematically, however it usually follows some principles and concepts that help structure and these are:
- Evolution (this is considered the basic and fundamental principle of biology)
- The diversity
- Biological interactions
- Among others.
Breaking down a couple of these principles, it could be said that evolution refers to the fact that every living being is the descendant of a common ancestor. On the other hand, universality explains that there are common processes that explain the way of life in many beings, such as cells: every living being has cells , either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Characteristics of life according to biology
From the point of view of biology, life is characterized by having an orderly structure , with capacity to divide and reproduce .
The growth and development of living beings are a consequence of metabolism , that is, of all the chemical reactions with which nutrients are taken advantage of and waste is eliminated. All this implies regulatory mechanisms to keep internal conditions stable.
Last but not least, all living beings react to stimuli from their environment, which has allowed their evolution over time .
Importance of biology
Biology is the key that allows us to discover the mysteries of life through the exploration of the connections between living beings. Thanks to biology, we know that microorganisms can be complex structures and that our own body is a wonderful machine.
Biology has contributed enormously to the improvement of health, not only of human beings but also of our domestic animals. With medications, such as antibiotics, you can fight bacterial infections that were once fatal.
Vaccines are also a great advance for humanity. Thanks to mass vaccinations, infant mortality has been reduced by almost 95%.
Through molecular biology, plant species such as rice and tomato are being improved. With modifications in their genetic information, their nutritional content can be increased and made more resistant to diseases and droughts. In this way, biology is contributing to the future of life on planet Earth.