We explain what political sciences are and what their origin was. Object of study, labor field and branches of political science.
What are political sciences?
It is called Political Science, or also Politology, to social science interested in the study of theoretical and practical aspects of politics , that is, political and government systems , the behaviors of societies, in order to establish a method accurate and objective on these matters, from the observation of reality.
Like all social science , its approach to the object of study is theoretical and qualitative, using various tools common to this type of non-exact sciences. And often borrows from other fields of knowledge, such as economics , sociology , psychology , etc.
His usual methods of analysis are:
- Experimental . Through social experiments and simulated situations that collate the reactions of societies.
- Statisticians . Through the mathematical processing of data from observed and measured facts.
- Compared . Through the comparative analysis between two or more political situations that are of interest.
- Historic . Through the review of the available bibliography and the evocation of past political situations.
Origin of Political Science
This discipline originated from political philosophy , a branch of Philosophy that specializes in relationships between individuals and society ; but today political science is indistinguishable from its predecessor. It is considered a relatively recent science, whose true development took place in the twentieth century, after World War II .
His antecedents in antiquity, however, were the great Greek philosophers and thinkers (Aristotle, Plato), Romans (Tito Livio, Plutarch, Polybius) and even ancient India (Chanakia Pandit). And one of its greatest exponents was the Renaissance philosopher Nicolás Maquiavelo , author of the famous treatise The Prince (1513).
Object of study of political science
The object of study of political science is, as we said before, politics . This is equivalent to saying that it deals with the power relations that are established within that pact of mutual coexistence that is the State . This does not mean that it is a doctrine about the art of governing , much less an applicable method.
Yes, instead, it deals with the relations of obedience and domination that take place within the political organization, trying to construct an objective method to understand the origin and social functioning of these structures . He is interested in authority, types of power , political and social classes, mechanisms of domination and conviction, the legitimation of power, etc.
His main research areas, in that sense, are:
- The political power and its means of obtaining.
- The authority and legitimacy of power.
- The origin and operation of the State.
- The public administration .
- The political behavior of societies.
- Political communication and public opinion.
- International Relations
Labor field of Political Science
Political sciences train professionals willing to work in a very diverse field . First, public administration (regional or national governments and even international organizations) benefits from these specialists in the State and their power relations, serving as advisors, consultants, directors or supervisors, when not witnesses whose job it is to document objectively the novel political processes that are of public interest.
Another frequent labor vein points to specialized journalism , such as disseminators and opinion makers in political matters, when not public and private education professionals in these matters.
Finally, the diplomatic exercise is an area of interest for political scientists , since their professional training allows them to be effective observers at the service of national, regional and international stability.
Branches of Political Science
Politology comprises the following main branches:
- International politics . Descriptive and explanatory study of the political dynamics that take place between different nations.
- Comparative policy . Comparative study of the procedures, institutions, stories and characteristics of the different organized societies.
- Political theory . The theoretical study, that is, not applied but abstract of the dynamics of power based on its fundamental principles.
- Public administration . The application of political theories and principles to the method of government of societies.
- Political economy . The study of the impact of the economy and its processes on the way politics operates and vice versa.
- Political Sociology . The study of how the cultural, psychological and social constitution of communities are related to the forms of power and domination they choose to organize.