Structure & Characteristics of Argumentative Essay

Argumentative essay

An argumentative essay is a free-form thematic text intended to persuade or convince the reader of the ideas presented. Its purpose is to encourage the reader to lean toward the author’s point of view. In other words, an argumentative essay always has a comment element to explain his point of view on a particular issue or topic. Dissertation essay structure features

It is the discussion and defense of the views expressed in the text in a logical and methodical manner. Authors can even come up with contradictory premises and arguments to remove them and strengthen their arguments.

What matters in this type of essay is the author’s point of view and how the author approaches the argument. When authors try to justify themselves, they are often academic in nature and liberal in the subject matter because they reflect the author’s personal views.

Either way, whether it convinces the reader or not, an argumentative essay should be the starting point for thinking about the topic.

Characteristics of the argumentative essay

Debate essays share a literary language with other types of essays and, in that sense, use metaphors and other rhetorical schemes to confirm important points. This is a space consistent with publisher subjectivity, but with conceptual rigor.

In general, essays have the following characteristics:

1-Point of view

The author’s perspective is presented through the article accompanying the introduction to the essay.


The analysis is an integral part of any argument, and by contrasting opinions and comparing the strengths and weaknesses of perspectives, authors find reasons gradually.

Language marks in the argumentative essay

In the argumentative essay, various literary resources can be used:


It uses various argumentative connectors: to start the text, add new ideas, include examples, draw conclusions, compare, contrast, and finish.

  • To begin the text, the connectors used are, for example: First of all, To begin, The idea of ​​this essay, What we present… and the like.
  • To add ideas and give them order, the following are used: Likewise, In this sense, On the other hand, In other words …, and to exemplify: For example, In fact, Specifically, etc.
  • For the conclusions, the following are used: In other words, In conclusion, In short, In short.
  • The comparison connectors: Likewise, Likewise, Likewise, Likewise, etc .; those of contrast: On the contrary, As opposed to. And to finish: Finally, Finally, To summarize, etc.

2-Qualifications and designations

Throughout the text, the author will rely on expressions that qualify and designate what he is arguing. An example would be:

“A conservationist attitude is necessary on the part of all humanity to face a possible environmental catastrophe. The idea is that we can live together on the same planet ”.

3-Formal use of language

An essay is a literary text, and in that sense, the author uses words judiciously, respects grammatical rules, and avoids potentially confusing colloquialisms as much as possible.


The argumentative essay must show internal unity of opinion from beginning to end. That is, when presenting arguments, it is necessary to respect the order so that the reader can easily understand.

What is an argumentative essay for?

As a general rule, an argumentative essay helps convince the reader of the points the author has made. An essay, by definition, is a text that establishes and discusses a topic. Discussion topics are often controversial. As such, the authors stand by their claims.

And while it is the opinion of the author, what matters in an argumentative essay is the background it uncovers. In addition to informing the reader, he or she reasoned on the topic and supported your argument.

This way, you can convince them by showing that your point is correct. Arguing is not enough. You should always back it up with numbers, quotes, or other information and indicate where you got it from.

Structure of an argumentative essay

An argumentative essay has a similar structure to other types of essay: introduction, development or arguments, and conclusion.


In the introduction, the author explains the content of the essay. It does so in a way that entices the reader to keep reading. In addition to showing general topics, it also shows who is arguing, whether you agree or disagree, and why.

2-Development or arguments

Post body. Arguments are presented in the passage. Ideally, when there are multiple fragments, each one corresponds to one argument. In any case, they should be very clear and explain exactly why, so as not to offend the reader.

Some argumentative essays are one page long, while others span the entire book. Not important. What is important is the clarity with which it is being discussed.

A counter-argument can be made that contradicts the author’s claim and the author counters it to prove the validity of the claim.

It should start with the most important arguments and end with the least relevant arguments representing an order defined by the author.


In conclusion, the author re-emphasizes the topic, but in a broader context, the discussion shows the reader changing his understanding and perspective after reading.

A common mistake, especially when writing articles, is creating a new discussion. The conclusion solves the problem and does not start a new dispute.

Given that an essay is only a contribution, I recommend starting with initial reading to identify and (in any case) other research guidelines that others may want to undertake.

How to do an argumentative essay step by step

1-Choice of theme

To write an argumentative essay, you should first choose a topic that you are familiar with or interested in.

Let’s say we want to write about how happiness (or euphoria) affects our bodies and overall health. Therefore, I set a temporary theme of “the effect of happiness on the body”.

2-Be documented

I have an idea of the subject, but it is important to document as much material as possible to learn from different sources. We offer our personal opinions, but if you want to argue, remember that debate is necessary and in this case science.

What substances are produced in the brain when we feel happy?

Thanks to these questions, we seek information and use legitimate sources (neuroscience, psychology, science) to support our claims.


The above questions can serve as a skeleton to order the preparation of the essay.


Once you have your ideas in place, start writing your first draft. This allows us to better define the topics we discuss.

You have to be consistent. Develop your ideas logically. It also means structuring your sentences logically and then structuring your paragraphs. If you claim that happiness has a special effect on the body, then you need to argue step by step.

For example, by examining the presence of hormones (endorphins) produced in the brain when a person feels good or happy, or the presence of toxic substances when a person is stressed, angry, sad, or anxious. , the brain is generated.

You might think that charitable substances can also heal the body if these toxic substances build up and make you sick.


Carefully check the consistency of the text, the consistency of language and style, the inheritance of ideas and arguments, syntax and spelling, and if there is a “leap” in the order of ideas, it should be considered. review. fix.

An initial outline should be created and followed but modified during writing and review.

Example of an argumentative essay

Next, we present an argumentative essay whose title is “To conserve the environment is to conserve human life on Earth.” To facilitate understanding, the beginning, development, and conclusion are indicated.


In recent years, the environment has been the subject of debate at many international conferences, with the world’s most powerful powers coming together to reach an agreement on the most industrialized and most polluted countries.

2-Development and arguments

Interestingly, the most polluting countries today are China and the United States, the two most powerful economies, followed by the EU, India, Russia, and Japan.

The goal of these international agreements is to address global warming and climate change, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are calculated to contribute to global warming.

China seemed indifferent to urban pollution at least a decade ago, but she was one of the most important participants in ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. One of the most important players right now. Countries are deploying large-scale infrastructure production to transition to solar energy and other renewable resources. Clearly, the Asian giant understands the risks of climate change well.

However, the United States, one of the most powerful countries in the world, abandoned these agreements after Donald Trump took office, arguing that they would boost the country’s economic growth.

It also argues that research on climate change is inconclusive and that it is more economical to continue developing coal and oil fields than to invest in resource-based clean energy production.

The North American President’s immediate stance explicitly and irresponsibly denies all scientific research done by the thousands of biologists, scientists, geologists, ecologists, and other professionals who explain environmental degradation. increase.

As global temperatures continue to rise, the balance of ecosystems will be affected, from plants to large animals, including humans.

Gradually, human existence will be limited, the land will be destroyed, and the rivers will be dried up. What will happen to us if we run out of water? Water is life, without water there is nothing. This is a simple equation. Talking about marine pollution does not solve the problem.

Protecting the environment requires a positive and responsible attitude. It concerns us all equally. If we perish, no country will be saved. Therefore, both states and individuals must address this issue.

It doesn’t matter if you believe in climate change or not. Climate change doesn’t cause tornadoes, but they do get more intense. It causes unpredictable flooding, melting of polar ice, and extinction of species.


In this century we have accomplished what the natural world has not been able to do for millions of years. It has destroyed the human condition of existence. If we want to continue living on a planet where we can breathe water, food, and air, we have to change.

The earth will continue without us. I can’t move forward without him.

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