We explain what madness is and how this pathology developed throughout history. The madness in society and its symptomatology.
What is madness?
Madness is or na pathology or disturbance of mental faculties . It is also defined as “deprivation of judgment or the use of reason.”
Until the end of the 19th century, it was understood by madness all the behaviors that departed from those expected socially , that is, that did not meet the established norms, but all this on the basis or because of a psychic imbalance, such as epilepsy or any other “disease” that caused the person to manifest strange behaviors.
Madness throughout history
Before associating with the psyche of man, it was directly related to supernatural events , even saying that a person was possessed, bewitched or derived. It was also said that crazy people came to that state because of their own sins. So for quite some time demons and divine punishments were linked to mental disorders.
Later, specifically from the Middle Ages, different diseases began to be added to the list of “crazy things” , in this century they were lepers, but after the plague, venereal diseases followed.
In the Renaissance period madness was conceived as a manifestation of evil and the madmen were banished from civilization in the “stultifera navis” or ship of the crazy.
It is not until Humanism that madness becomes a matter of human reason and an important twist arises, it is about questioning people’s habitual vision, criticizing the conception of reality . And finally, it is in the 17th century when the crazy hospital is created .
Madness in society
- It is a behavior that moves away from socially dictated norms.
- The “crazy” tend to suffer social isolation, because they tend not to be very well integrated by the common civilians, although in certain societies people who suffer from different types of psychological pathologies have been better included.
- Integration is linked to the opportunities offered by the State or non-governmental entities.
Symptomatology of madness
Madness is not a disease in itself , but is a way to group people who have psychic disorders in a generic way . Therefore establishing symptoms of madness is difficult, but you can name certain characteristics such as:
- Conduct away from the expected in society, characterized by being erratic.
- Loss of emotion control, disinhibition.
- Bizarre, absurd and useless acts that are executed by the person believing that it is natural, “normal.”
Stigma of Madness
For centuries the end of psychotics was confinement , having them isolated and far from civilization was the most “reasonable” decision at the time, since citizens were not disturbed by them.
In the postwar period, this changed. It began to have a more human and “democratic” vision on this subject, that is, it was understood that during the past time it was acted in a cruel way, so there is a new approach to these people who are not yet conceived within minorities when they are.
Nowadays and in western cultures , integration is sought . However, this still has a great flaw and that is misinformation.
In countries like Spain campaigns are being carried out to explain that a person suffering from schizophrenia can access jobs like any of the people and lead a common life like everyone else, provided that they are under treatment, something that enhances inclusion.
Family and madness
The families are an essential part of anyone , more so when it has some dependence as psychotic.
Any family in charge of a person with psychiatric disorders not only requires the help of the government or the State , such as the economic one, but also needs resources such as professional care in an efficient way, where the care time is optimal, with home visits if necessary, among others.
Currently, families, in most countries, feel poorly supported and when patients do not have family support, they usually fall into what the State provides, which is not usually an acceptable minimum assistance.
In society there are phenomena that serve as a defense or a kind of «adaptation», within them lies lies, we will consider within them simulation, over-simulation and concealment of madness.
- Simulation : It consists of pretending to be crazy, either to say what is thought or justify behavior.
- Overstimulation : It is the intention of the alienated to go through crazy, is what happens with criminals who seek through this way to get rid of convictions or social stigmas related to crime.
- Disguise : It consists of people who try to camouflage theirpsychic problems , since they suspect that they have psychiatric problems and do not want to be hospitalized, treated or known in this way in society.