The Golgi apparatus is a membranous organelle that arose, most likely and ultimately, from invagination of the plasma membrane. This is because the origin of the organelle is related either directly to the membrane or to elements detached from the endoplasmic reticulum, which, in turn, originated from invaginations of the membrane. golgi apparatus structure and function
The structure is named after the individual who first described it, biologist Camilo Golgi.
Regarding the structure of the Golgi apparatus, it is said to be complex because it is a network of interconnected vesicles and sacs that are organized to perform a function associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. golgi apparatus structure and function
This organelle has a varied location and size, however, its position is usually associated with the proximity of the nucleus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Regarding the size, although variable, the organelle is quite developed in the secretory cells.
Structure of golgi apparatus
Like the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex is made up of membranes that fold over each other to form flattened and flattened membranous pockets. golgi apparatus structure and function
Each of these bags is called a cistern and, associated with them, there are vesicles that are generally related to the transport of molecules.
In addition to being stacked on top of each other, cisterns tend to show a certain curvature.
Thus, this certain angulation of its arrangement ends up forming a concave and convex face. Each of these faces receives a specific name: the convex is known as the cis face and the concave as the trans face. golgi apparatus structure and function
In this sense, there is a network of tubular structures that are associated with these faces, they are the cis network and the trans network of the Golgi apparatus.
As for the content of the tanks, it is also quite variable depending on the type and function of the cell in question.
What can be said is that this content has a variety of enzymes and molecules related to the final product, a clear example of this is the fact that the content of these tanks is basically composed of glycoproteins and enzymes related to their reactions.
Golgi apparatus function
It is noteworthy that the Golgi apparatus has a very close relationship with the endoplasmic reticulum. In terms of its functions, this is no different. The organelles work together and the Golgi complex is analogous to a central processing and distribution cell.
Proteins are produced on ribosomes associated with the reticulum membrane and then transferred to the endoplasmic reticulum. There, modifications and transport of these proteins take place and, subsequently, they can be transported to the Golgi complex.
In this organelle, these newly arrived molecules can be processed and distributed throughout the cell. Thus, this processing is based on the possibility of modifications in the proteins so that, later, the transport can take place.
In addition to the modification and distribution of molecules, the Golgi complex can also perform other functions. One of them concerns the storage of proteins.
You see, proteins are often produced, but you don’t need to use or secrete them right away.
In this sense, the Golgi apparatus performs another function in the cell, that is, when these proteins are produced for later use, they are stored in the Golgi complex.
Another activity in the Golgi apparatus that plays an important role is the production of other cellular structures such as the acrosome of sperm and the middle lamella of plant cells, among others.
This is due to the fact that the vesicles that contain specific enzymatic material detach from the original organelle and become different organelles, an example of this is what happens in vesicles with digestive enzymes that are transformed into lysosomes.
Finally, the Golgi apparatus is an organelle composed of stacked membranous bags, called cisterns, and their associated vesicles that contain enzymes and “raw material” for the final product.
Thus, its function is related to the processing, storage and distribution of molecules and also to the formation of other organelles.