We explain what socialization is and what are the agents of socialization. Also, what is tertiary socialization?
What is socialization?
The concept of socialization or socialization consists of the process by which individuals embrace the sociocultural elements of the social context in which they find themselves through interrelation with the rest of the individuals, so that the concepts about reality are internalized to their personality during the development of the process of social adaptability.
In other words, it is by interacting with other people when the individual acquires the cultural perspectives , patterns, norms and values of a particular society and at a particular historical moment.
Socialization accompanies a person in all stages of development , however it is essential in the period of childhood and childhood. Through this it is that the social forms that are considered “correct” about how to behave towards other human beings are known .
It is part of this, as awareness, the assumption of social structures of which it participates and in which it acts, incorporating for itself the differentiation between acceptable (positive) behaviors or values and the values that are considered unacceptable (negative) in A certain society.
It is worth clarifying that this process is not exclusive to the different periods of development of human life, but it is also noticeable in certain social changes that a person may suffer during their social life, such as the transcultural change that the step means from one cultural circle (nation, social group, estate, etc.) to another, this implies a process of resocialization.
Socializing agents are elements that intervene in socialization . They can be individuals or institutions that have great influence on the person and the social behavior of the same, and are also through which the individual will develop their social activity.
In this way, two types of socialization can be distinguished:
- Primary socialization : That which the individual receives during the first years of life , in his childhood and childhood when interacting with his family , this is fundamental both for good personal, psychic development, as well as for his social development and the incorporation of social patterns already Your identity will be defined . Then, after this stage, the secondary socialization begins.
- Secondary socialization : It has the purpose of giving the individual a different vision of reality, in which it is no longer the vision of their peers or family members that has the preeminence but that it is that of various socializing agents that expands their knowledge , they are relations with people beyond the family bond. This begins when the childhood or childhood of the individual is finished, friends, teachers , are examples of the socializing agents of this stage that will be developed for a period greater than the primary.
On the other hand there is the current discussion about the denomination of a socialization that we could call tertiary or “resocialization” process. This would be a kind of social reintegration process that applies in cases where people have suffered a deviation from the norm or have shown behaviors called “socially dangerous” or criminal.
Its objective is to re – adapt the behavior of those who have transgressed the norm , and this is achieved with the intervention of professionals who are the socializing agents implicit in this tertiary type of socialization. In this case it is the body of certified specialists such as psychiatrists, social educators, doctors or psychologists. It is common for this socialization to develop within the institutions in charge such as reformatories or prisons.