We explain what science and scientific knowledge is, what is the scientific method and its steps. In addition, what are the types of sciences.
What is science?
Science is the set of knowledge that is organized systematically obtained from observation , experimentation and reasoning within specific areas. It is through this accumulation of knowledge that hypotheses , questions, schemes, laws and principles are generated.
Science is governed by certain methods that comprise a series of rules and steps. Thanks to a rigorous and strict use of these methods, the reasoning that emerges from the research processes is validated, giving scientific rigor to the conclusions obtained. This is why the conclusions derived from scientific observation and experimentation are verifiable and objective.
Science is branched into what is known as different fields or areas of knowledge , where different specialists carry out studies and observations, making use of scientific methods, to achieve new valid, accurate, irrefutable and objective knowledge.
It is governed mainly by the scientific method for obtaining new knowledge.
As mentioned, to obtain new knowledge, the science uses what is known as scientific method (in the link to expand the subject ) , which involves a series of steps that are necessary to achieve scientific knowledge.
For this, it is necessary to use the appropriate instruments so that the knowledge is valid. This method, or steps to be followed by the researcher, should always be explained and detailed throughout the investigation, so that its recipients know it and can judge the results obtained.
Steps of the scientific method
The steps that make up the scientific method, in broad strokes, are five:
- Observation . The first thing the researcher must do is carefully observe the phenomenon he wishes to study. For this, it analyzes this phenomenon as it is found in nature, using its own senses.
- Induction. From this, the scientist obtains the particular principle of each of the phenomena analyzed. This is known under the name of induction.
- Hypothesis . The next step is to make a hypothesis, that is, a probable proposition that is made after the collection of data and information.
- Experimentation . It is from this proposition that the scientist guides his scientific research , performing as many tests as necessary, for the internet to prove or refute it.
- Conclusions . After this, an investigation must be presented where all the previous steps are detailed and where the conclusions reached after the work done are expressed.
One of the advantages of scientific knowledge is that they go beyond the facts themselves , and that they can be communicated and, even better, verified by all. Other qualities of knowledge:
It must be taken into account that the validity of scientific knowledge is not permanent or unquestionable, but that they are considered as such as long as they are not refuted. Constantly the knowledge obtained contrast each other and question.
The fact that a knowledge has not been refuted does not mean that it is considered as an unquestionable truth , but that it is always submitted to new content and observations that are acquired over time to continue verifying them.
Types of science
Broadly speaking, science can be classified as follows:
- Natural sciences . They specialize in the study of nature , as they do for example astronomy , geology , biology or physics .
- Formal sciences . They are oriented to valid forms of inference and have a formal, non-concrete content, unlike empirical sciences. Mathematics and logic are located here.
- Social sciences . It includes disciplines oriented to human issues such as culture and society . Here you can include sociology , history , psychology , anthropology or politics , among others. Next, we will expand the concept.
The social sciences include disciplines studying cultural and social processes that emerge from social life of the human being . The social sciences study the behavior of man as an individual and as a social being, the functioning of his psyche, his history, his evolution, his development and his political life .
Within the social sciences we can find other more specific sciences, such as sociology , history , psychology , anthropology or politics , among others.