We explain what fascism is and what are the characteristics of this ideology. In addition, its expansion to Germany, with Nazism.
What is fascism?
Fascism was a political movement or ideology promoted by Benito Mussolini in Europe between 1918 and 1939. The word comes from the Italian ” fascio “, which means ‘fasces or beam’.
Fascism has its origin in 1918, when the Great War ended . It arises at this time because it was considered optimal to formalize this movement at that time. Fascism argues that the winning governments of World War I are decadent . By this thought the powers of the axis in World War II were aligned.
The ideology of fascism is centered on the state, imposing great nationalism . Why? It is important to think that in Italy a great internal conflict arose during the First War ; which led to disorganization, rebellion and lack of control by the troops. No one would want to defend something improper. Italy suffered from a great lack of patriotism at a general level. In the beginning, this was “patched” with the creation of a national anthem and national symbols , not obtaining the expected improvement, this ideology was developed.
If we reason about the place of Italy in the Wars, we can see that in the Great War, Italy was on the side of the victors (France, England, Russia). In the Second War, it was allied with the enemy (with Germany and Turkey). Why? This is because fascism was widely accepted in allied countries to its previous enemies.
Italian and German fascism
( 1 ) In the Italian fascism began to raise different issues about points with great controversy in the world. An example is religion . Mussolini, when implementing fascism, set aside religion. At first, no one put resistance to the stop of the promotion of religion; but a few years later, the Vatican itself disobeyed the de facto government, which led to a dispute between Italy and the Vatican. In opposition to this measure, the Vatican opened a radio called “Vatican Radio” in 1931.
( 2 ) In German fascism or rather, the mutation of fascism, Nazism, was directed by a discriminatory and violent regime, where a different person was an enemy. The Nazis always held this view. A famous case was the issue of the elimination of the Jewish people.
By maintaining a different policy , belief and thought, the German people began to discriminate them in such a way that, due to the fact of thinking differently, they should be exiled (only during the beginning). Later in the year, everyone who was of different thoughts was considered a criminal , and should be imprisoned and imprisoned for it.
Germany, when establishing fascism, had an immediate popular acceptance. The differences between Nazism, emerged from fascism, and Italy’s own fascism were the extremes reached. Nazism was so imposed, so indoctrinated in society , and, in addition, accompanied by a very strong government, which achieved great taxation in society. Italian fascism was much more attenuated, more tenuous with respect to popular acceptance.
Nazism, so accepted, reached much more extreme limits than fascism, reaching extreme racism , where belonging to a different race was punishable by death . The most shocking thing about this movement was how twisted it was and the acceptance it had.
To this acceptance and popular encouragement he had, he owes him the great capacity for organization. At the time of a public announcement, speech or parade, the great masses were organized in a matter of a few minutes, being normal one hour of organization.
Fascism was of great importance in the war . That power of organization and popular feeling of patriotism or nationalism always comes into play when it comes to war. This is mainly because, when it comes to something as big as a war, being an organized and controlled nation is fundamental . As we said, characteristic of fascism and Nazism.
During the war, what matters most is the strategy and plan of attack; The number doesn’t matter. Fascism and all its derivations were fundamental for the entire development of the war. If we analyze World War II, a priori we can see that the Axis (group of allies Germany, Italy, Japan) failed is their attempt to govern the world economy , and even to conquer certain territories. This happened because of an attack carried out by the allies at a time of low German defenses. As we can see, it only takes a moment of carelessness to win a war.
In conclusion, Alemánia, Italy, and partly Japan, were candidates with great chances of winning this war. They had all the factors that contributed to the possible victory resolved ; but a few days of lack of control of the situation were enough to know the defeat for the second time.
All that nationalist organization and feeling that they gained during the development of the fascism of each country went to waste. These nations suffered internal conflicts as well as differentiation, poverty and others , only because of the ambitions of their rulers. Apart from all this, they had the feeling of failure.