We explain what a forest is, what types of forests there are and their different climates. In addition, how is the flora and fauna that it has.
What is a forest?
A forest is an ecosystem with an important population of trees and shrubs . Forests absorb carbon dioxide , retain many properties in the soil (which is very fertile) and regulate hydrological flows.
The action of man on these ecosystems produces deforestation , so it is not unusual for many forests to be cut down for economic purposes.
There are different types of forests depending on their origin.
- Primary or native forests. They are forests that grow naturally without the intervention or planting by man.
- Secondary forests Secondary forest is called a forest that has emerged again after a felling.
- Artificial forests. They are forests that man has sown.
Since there are forests around the planet, the climate that characterizes the forests is not unique. Thus, coniferous forests have a colder climate than lush forests where it is more tropical or temperate. Depending on the altitude and climate of each forest, there is a classification:
- Boreal forest. They are forests whose climate is subpolar. They are usually coniferous forests with evergreens.
- Temperate forest . They are forests that are in temperate climates. Its vegetation can be both broadleaf and mixed broadleaf but coniferous trees can also be found.
- Subtropical Forest These forests belong to the subtropical climate, whether wet or dry.
- Tropical forest . They are forests such as the equatorial jungle where rainfall and wide-leaf trees abound to cover the largest possible surface area of solar irradiation.
Flora – Forest classification
Depending on the type of trees that predominate in the forests, they can be classified as follows:
- Coniferous forests . It is found mostly in mountainous, elevated and cold regions. Conifers that are evergreen plants predominate.
- Leafy forests. They are forests whose trees have broad leaves. They have more diverse vegetation, need more moisture than coniferous forests and are found in tropical or temperate climates.
- Mixed forests. They are forests that combine evergreens with broadleaf and non-evergreen trees.
To forest animals
Although the type of fauna that lives in the forests will depend on the climate and the altitude where it is located:
- In a coniferous forest , where temperatures are lower, the animals that abound are: rabbits, coyotes, prairie dogs, raccoons, squirrels, owls, bat, dove, magpie, rattlesnake, scorpion, weasels, etc.
- In a temperate forest , for example, bears, goats, raccoons, squirrels, puma, deer, woodpecker, golden eagle, among others.
- In a tropical forest it is common to see deer, antelopes, buffalo, lions, rhinos, African elephants, cheetahs, hyenas, buffalo, giraffes, monkeys, bats, lemurs, gorillas, leopards, etc.
There are also specific animals in each forest ; for example, in the forests that are between Argentina and Chile, there are many guanacos, huemul, beaver, black-necked swan, kingfishers, steam ducks, among others.
Due to the intervention of man and the use of wood or rubber, deforestation turns out to be abundant, with the forest being the main biome to be cut down .