What are the types of intelligence?
- Logical-mathematical intelligence
- Linguistic intelligence
- Visual-spatial intelligence
- Body-kinesthetic intelligence
- Musical intelligence
- Interpersonal intelligence
- Intrapersonal intelligence
Later, the psychologist added two new modalities to the list: naturalistic intelligence and existential intelligence.
Among the conclusions of Gardner’s theory, the main one is that no type of intelligence is superior to another , and that each individual must identify their abilities and limitations in order to improve or supplement them. gardner types of intelligence
See below for a description of each type of intelligence.
1. Logical-mathematical intelligence
Logical-mathematical intelligence refers to the ability to deal with mathematical operations and logical approaches. This type of intelligence involves good inductive and deductive skills that allow the individual to easily recognize patterns and trends.
Logical-mathematical intelligence involves sequential reasoning capable of perceiving relationships and connections between elements. For this reason, this intelligence is prevalent among mathematicians, researchers, and scientists. gardner types of intelligence
People with logical-mathematical intelligence tend to first acquire theoretical knowledge and then apply it to practical questions.
Logical-mathematical intelligence is the type of intelligence most valued by modern society, which often reduces the concept of intelligence to this genre. gardner types of intelligence
An individual has a high logical-mathematical intelligence when:
- has ease with numbers and quantification tasks, pattern recognition, math operations, and arithmetic problems;
- likes to do experiments and do research to test hypotheses;
- are attracted to strategy and logic games and challenges, as well as intelligence tests; gardner types of intelligence
2. Linguistic intelligence gardner types of intelligence
Linguistic intelligence is associated with the ability to use words and language effectively. It is about articulating arguments and speeches in a clear and direct way, capable of transmitting a message or achieving objectives through speech.
People with linguistic intelligence can express complex ideas and concepts with ease. Therefore, this intelligence is easily observed in writers, poets, journalists, announcers and other types of announcers, especially politicians. gardner types of intelligence
Linguistic intelligence also implies a facility to understand the meaning of words and speeches, whether written or spoken.
An individual has high linguistic intelligence when:
- You have a rich vocabulary and you know when and how to use words to convey your message or achieve your goal.
- he likes to read a lot;
- can easily persuade or convince people;
- it is easy to learn languages;
- they are drawn to crossword puzzles and other similar games.
3. Visual-spatial intelligence
Visual-spatial intelligence consists of the ability to visualize and understand the world in three dimensions. This type of intelligence is common among people with a very active imagination. gardner types of intelligence
Visual-spatial intelligence implies:
Spatial reasoning : ability to imagine things in three dimensions. Many people, when imagining something, think of the object only from one point of view. Spatial reasoning allows the individual to be able to mentally project things from various points of view. Spatial reasoning also allows someone to imagine something correctly, even if it is based on little information.
Mental images : the ability to faithfully imagine representations of the physical world, even if they are based on old memories.
Image manipulation : ability to clearly imagine the result of the changes that have been made. Many people find it difficult to imagine if something would look better with another color, size, shape, accessory, etc. gardner types of intelligence
Artistic skills : ability to create art from visual-spatial aptitude, such as sculptures and paintings.
Visual-spatial intelligence is very common in navigators, architects, sculptors, painters, designers, pilots, etc.
An individual has high visual-spatial intelligence when:
- likes to draw, paint, or work with pictures;
- has high spatial perception, navigation skills and sense of direction;
- likes games and activities that involve puzzles and mazes;
- tends to daydream frequently. gardner types of intelligence
4. Body-kinesthetic intelligence
Body-kinesthetic intelligence is related to the efficient use of the body. It usually manifests itself in the form of motor coordination, manual eye-pedal coordination, and mind-body coordination.
People with high body-kinesthetic intelligence tend to have goals related to body, touch, and movement, and they often enjoy physical activities. Due to the high coordination between mind and body, people with this type of intelligence have an interest in activities that require improvement and synchronization .
Body-kinesthetic intelligence is very common in athletes, artisans, dancers, acrobats and surgeons. gardner types of intelligence
An individual has a high body-kinesthetic intelligence when:
- has a high body awareness, recognizing their physical abilities and limitations;
- has manual skills and an interest in building things;
- has good body language;
- have a good time for physical activities and tasks.
5. Musical intelligence gardner types of intelligence
Musical intelligence is the ability to understand and identify tones, timbres, rhythms, and other elements related to sound.
Musical intelligence allows the individual to create, reproduce and recognize sound elements with ease, in addition to noticing sounds that other people would not notice.
Musical intelligence is very common in musicians, composers, singers, conductors, DJs, etc.
An individual has high musical intelligence when:
- is sensitive to sounds in general; gardner types of intelligence
- can discern tones, timbres, and rhythms;
- enjoys music and likes to compose, sing or play games;
6. Interpersonal intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact with other people effectively. gardner types of intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence involves attention and sensitivity to notice the mood, feelings and temperament of other people, as well as the facility to understand others. This type of intelligence also implies the facility to be understood before others.
Interpersonal intelligence is very common in teachers, politicians, actors, salespeople, social workers, etc.
An individual has high interpersonal intelligence when:
- has aptitude for leadership;
- is sensitive to the mood and feelings of others;
- has a lot of friends; gardner types of intelligence
- it is easy to analyze problems from different points of view;
- You can understand people with ease, including their subtle tendencies and characteristics.
7. Intrapersonal intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to know yourself, respecting your own feelings, desires, limitations and motivations. gardner types of intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence consists of self-knowledge capable of reorienting life plans. This also implies appreciation and respect for the human condition.
Intrapersonal intelligence is very common in psychologists, spiritual leaders, and philosophers.
An individual has high intrapersonal intelligence when:
- has great willpower and independence;
- he is highly aware of his feelings and acts accordingly;
- appreciates existential reflections and constantly seeks self-knowledge;
- They are usually shy, introverted or have few friends.
8. Naturalistic intelligence gardner types of intelligence
Naturalistic intelligence consists of the facility to understand nature and its elements, whether they are alive or not. This includes compression of animals, plants, rain, sea, land, etc.
Naturalistic intelligence has a great relevance in the evolution of man, considering that the notions of hunting, sowing and gathering were fundamental for the survival of the species.
Gardner proposed naturalistic intelligence in 1995, that is, 12 years after the introduction of the original seven types of intelligence. gardner types of intelligence
Naturalistic intelligence is very common among botanists, biologists, farmers, rangers, hunters, etc.
An individual has a high naturalistic intelligence when:
- it is easy to deal with animals;
- has a taste for nature;
- Has interest and ability to understand natural phenomena such as rain, gusts, snow, etc.
9. Existential intelligence
Proposed by Gardner in 1999, existential intelligence consists of the ability to understand deep problems related to existence, the meaning of life and spiritual issues. This type of existence is manifested through a strong interest in seeking answers on these types of issues. gardner types of intelligence
Existential intelligence is very common in spiritual leaders, theologians, and philosophers.
An individual has a high existential intelligence when:
- has a great interest in issues related to existence, such as death, the universe, the origin of life, etc;