Gallium: Uses And Characteristics With Its Atomic Properties

We elaborate the uses of Gallium and atomic properties with characteristics. Gallium is a silver-white chemical element with an atomic number 31. Its symbol is Ga and it belongs to the group of metals of the p block and its habitual state in nature is solid. Gallium is located at position 31 on the periodic table.

On this page you will discover the chemical properties of gallium and information about gallium and other elements on the periodic table such as aluminium, indium, zinc or germanium. You will also learn what gallium is for and know its uses through its properties associated with gallium such as its atomic number or the usual state in which gallium can be found.

You can see qualities of gallium such as its melting and boiling point, its magnetic properties or what its chemical symbol is. In addition, here you will find information about its atomic properties such as the distribution of electrons in gallium atoms and other properties.

For some elements some of this information is unknown. In these cases we show the properties attributed to them.

Gallium properties

Gallium belongs to the group of metallic elements known as p-block metals that are located next to metalloids or semi-metals in the periodic table. These types of elements tend to be soft and have low melting points, properties that can also be attributed to gallium, since it is part of this group of elements.

The state of gallium in its natural form is solid. Gallium is a silver-white chemical element and belongs to the group of metals in block p. The atomic number for gallium is 31. The chemical symbol for gallium is Ga. The melting point of gallium is 302.91 degrees Kelvin or 30.76 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius. The boiling point of gallium is 2477 degrees Kelvin or 2204.85 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius.

Uses of gallium

Gallium is a soft silver substance and melts at temperatures slightly above room temperature. It was discovered in 1875 by the French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Most gallium production occurs as a by-product of aluminum or zinc production . Gallium has a wide variety of uses in different industries. If you’ve ever wondered what gallium is for , here is a list of its possible uses:

  • Gallium’s primary use is in semiconductors where it is commonly used in microwave circuits and in some infrared applications. It is also used in to make blue and purple colored LED diodes and laser diodes.
  • Gallium is used in nuclear weapons to help stabilize plutonium .
  • It can be used inside a telescope to find neutrinos.
  • Gallium is used as a component in some types of solar panels.
  • It is also used in the production of mirrors.
  • Galinstane, which is an alloy of gallium, indium and tin , is used in many medical thermometers. This has replaced traditional mercury thermometers that can be dangerous. The replacement with mercury of permanent dental fillings with gallium is currently under investigation.
  • Galinstane can be applied to aluminum so that it can react with water and generate hydrogen .
  • It also has many medical applications. For example, gallium salts are used to treat people with excess calcium in their blood. Gallium isotopes are used in nuclear medicine to screen patients in certain circumstances.

Gallium Atomic Properties

The atomic mass of an element is determined by the total mass of neutrons and protons that can be found in a single atom belonging to this element. As for the position where to find gallium within the periodic table of the elements, gallium is in group 13 and period 4. Gallium has an atomic mass of 69,723 u.

The electronic configuration for gallium is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The electronic configuration of the elements, determines the form in which the electrons are structured in the atoms of an element. The average radius of gallium is 130 pm, its atomic radius or Bohr radius is 136 pm, its covalent radius is 126 pm, and its Van der Waals radius is 187 pm. Gallium has a total of 31 electrons whose distribution is as follows: In the first layer it has 2 electrons, in the second it has 8 electrons, in its third layer it has 18 electrons and in the fourth it has 3 electrons.

Gallium Characteristics

Below you can see a table showing the main characteristics of gallium.

Chemical symbol Ga
Atomic number 31
Group 13
Period 4
Appearance silver white
Block p
Density 5904 kg / m3
Atomic mass 69,723 u
Average radius 130 pm
Atomic radio 136
Covalent radius 126 pm
Van der Waals radio 187 pm
Electronic configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electrons per layer 2, 8, 18, 3
Oxidation states 3
Oxide amphoteric
Crystal structure orthorhombic
State solid
Melting point 302.91 K
Boiling point 2477 K
Heat of fusion 5.59 kJ / mol
Vapor pressure 9.31 × 10-36Pa at 302.9 K
Electronegativity 1.81
Specific heat 370 J / (K · kg)
Electric conductivity 6.78 106S / m
Thermal conductivity 40.6 W / (Km)

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