We explain what the Thirteen British Colonies were and how they arose. In addition, causes and consequences of American independence.
What were the Thirteen British Colonies?
The Thirteen British colonies (also known as the Thirteen Colonies) were the whole of the British colonies on the east coast of the current American territory, founded between the 17th and 17th centuries . His proclamation of independence in 1776 gave birth to the United States of America.
These colonies were once part of the British territories in America. They were English-speaking agricultural enclaves, Protestant religion and laws very similar to each other. They linked with the European metropolis through a mercantilist system , in which the central government rigorously managed the assets of the colonies for the benefit of the population residing in Europe.
However, as of 1750 the different colonies began to interrelate and collaborate with each other , eventually being able to do without Great Britain. This paved the way for the American Revolution and independence.
In addition to the Thirteen Colonies, Britain had a dozen more controlled territories in the so-called New World: the British West Indies, Newfoundland, the province of Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Bermuda, and east and west Florida.
What were the Thirteen Colonies?
These thirteen colonies were
- Massachusetts (founded 1620)
- New Hampshire (founded 1623)
- Rhode Island (founded 1636)
- Connecticut (founded 1636)
- New York (founded 1664)
- Pennsylvania (founded 1681)
- New Jersey (founded 1664)
- Delaware (founded 1638)
- Maryland (founded 1632)
- Virginia (founded 1607)
- North Carolina (founded 1653)
- South Carolina (founded 1670)
- Georgia (founded 1732)
How did the Thirteen Colonies come about?
The first permanent British settlement in American territory was Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 , long before Virginia became Royal Colony in 1624. Before the latter occurred, the settlers of Puritan settlers founded Plymouth, in 1620, and New Hampshire. in 1623.
The population of these initial colonies was diverse, composed of settlers and farmers of various British and European nationalities: Scots, Irish, Germans, Flemish and French Huguenots.
In many cases they were religious persecuted who saw in the New World the chance to start from scratch in a territory far from the power of the church and the crown. Also, in the adjacencies of these colonies the Swedish crown founded its own settlements in the 17th century, which were then conquered by the English and assimilated into the Thirteen colonies.
By 1770 many of these colonies were already urban centers with newspapers, shops, shops and artisans, constantly expanding, the result of European migration and generations born on American soil. The latter had never had a feudal aristocracy like the European one, since the land was abundant and any free man was welcome to cultivate it.
US Independence Background
Due to its low profitability and productivity (compared to the British colonies of the Caribbean), the British government considered it practical to grant the Thirteen Colonies some autonomy, so that they could manage their resources more efficiently.
They could have their own local government system, in which there were even voting cases , although most of the colonial governors always came from the designation of the crown.
On the other hand, the laws passed by the British parliament in Europe had validity and validity in the American territories , although the colonies had neither voice nor any participation in such decisions. This system, based on the dynamics of mercantilism, caused few inconveniences among American settlers.
Causes of US independence
The causes of the War of Independence that began in 1775 (with the Declaration of Independence in 1776) can be summarized as:
- Absence of colonial representation in the decision – making of the British government , especially after the end of the war against the French in 1763, in which many American militiamen stood out.
- Laws and restrictions imposed by the British crown on their colonial territories, which were detrimental to local economies and favored the metropolis.
- The contact and collaboration between the Thirteen Colonies that began since 1750, which allowed them to develop a common identity and dispense with Europe.
- The emancipatory and libertarian ideas that the French Enlightenment had put into fashion at the time.
- The outbreak of popular protests throughout the Thirteen colonies and the brutal response of the British Crown that fueled tensions to trigger an armed conflict.
Consequences of US independence
The consequences of the independence of the Thirteen colonies, similarly, can be summed up in:
- The explosion of an armed conflict between Britain and its American colonies, which would end in 1789.
- The creation of a new American nation : the United States of America, once the war is over.
- The implantation in the young nation of new illustrated and republican ideals , in social and political matters, allowing the federation and the drafting of the first constitution (1787) and the “Bill of Rights” (1789).
- There was a society that mitigated its pilgrim origins and established equal birth rights , although it did not abolish slavery until many years later.
- The settlement and territorial expansion of the United States throughout North America began.
- The opposite political tendencies were founded that, almost a hundred years later, gave rise to the sides faced in the Civil War (1861-1865).