We explain what the savanna is, the types of savanna that there is and the climate that predominates in this biome. In addition, how is its fauna and flora.
What is the savannah?
The savanna is a type of ecosystem where there are few scattered trees. A savannah is located in tropical and subtropical areas . However, there are savannas that have a certain amount of wooded vegetation, so the landscape in this type of ecosystem is dry; between semi-desert and jungle .
The savanna is characterized because its soil , devoid of nutrients, is dressed in grasslands but, due to the low rainfall, they turn a light green or yellow color.
The areas where the savannas predominate are in the African continent and are known as the African savanna. However, there are also areas of South America and India that are savanna. Thus, 46% of the earth’s surface has this type of ecosystem .
- Intertropical savanna In this type of savannah there are two well contrasted seasons: one with rainfall and another dry period. The intertropical savanna is also called plain, chaparral, pampas, meadows or grasslands. The soil, when it is a time of precipitation, can form swampy areas. As a different characteristic, the soil has a certain reddish color due to its richness in iron.
- Warm sheet It has a humid climate although in winter it is dry and cold.
- Mediterranean or semi-arid savanna. Its soil is very poor although there are a certain amount of animals that inhabit this type of ecosystem.
- Mountain Savannah This type of savanna is found in very high areas (alpine and subalpine). The special climatic conditions that have evolved in this type of savanna, allow a large number of endemic species.
The climate of the savannah is marked by two seasons; one with a lot of rainfall and another one of great droughts, which can cause fires in a natural way.
This last season is the one that predominates for 5 months whose average rainfall is 750 to 1300 millimeters per year .
Furthermore, the sheet has a fairly warm temperature throughout the year, with an average of 17 ° C .
The type of soil in the savanna is sandy. In other words, devoid of nutrients.
Fauna of the savannah
Although savanna animals vary depending on the type of savanna in question, most mammals have long, strong legs .
In the case of birds, their wings are wide to travel long distances at low altitude. In the savannah many predators abound since, the grasslands allow these to have a wide vision. Consequently there are pumas, cheetahs, lions, cheetahs, hippos, deer, crocodiles.
Many of these animals migrate to the limits of the savannah in search of more favorable climates for their survival.
Finally, in the savannah there are many small creatures that take refuge under the earth such as beetles, grasshoppers or termites, vipers, snakes, arachnids, etc.
Since survival is difficult in this type of climate, especially in times of drought, vegetation has developed survival techniques. Savannah plants have roots that store a lot of water .
In addition they can be really very deep to capture nutrients from the soil of a certain depth. On other occasions, its seeds are very resistant to cold temperatures and lack of water in times of drought.
As for the vegetation, there are many shrubs, thorny and bushes with a small amount of trees that can be acacias (acacia acacia, acacia Senegal, acacia catechu), palm trees and / or abobad.
This savanna extends in the central part of Africa, covering the countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana and South Africa.
The climate in the African savannah hovers around 23 ° C . Here there is no border line that clearly distinguishes the separation between the forest and the savanna. The typical vegetation of the African savannah consists of herbs, grasses and grasses.
The type of soil of the African savanna is not very deep and two types of layers are distinguished: a layer that receives the name of horizon A where the soil is mixed with decomposing organic matter; and a second layer, called horizon B where minerals prevail.
Finally, the fauna of the African savannah is abundant : antelopes, giraffes, zebras, elephants, rhinos, buffalo, scavengers, lions, cheetahs, hyenas, among others.