We explain what the design is and what are its main features. In addition, what is graphic, industrial and architectural design.
What is the design?
The word design has a very wide range of definitions, since it applies to many areas of human knowledge in a more or less differentiated manner. However, by design we generally refer to a process of mental prefiguration, that is, of creative planning , in which the solution to a specific problem is pursued , especially in the context of engineering, industry, architecture, communication and other related disciplines.
In broad strokes, design is nothing more than the imagination of an object , that is, its conception based on aspects such as shape, appearance, functionality, operability and its useful life. The designers, therefore, do nothing more than create physical, graphic or any other objects that serve a specific purpose and established beforehand. For example, an industrial designer can prefigure pieces of machinery for cars, or more efficient forms of pipe, while others may devote themselves to creating furniture, toys, telephones, etc.
Design as an autonomous discipline plays a vital role in the contemporary world , to such an extent that it has been assimilated to virtually all areas of human endeavor, and is among the most demanded international study courses.
A designer is a person who has trained his creativity focusing on more pragmatic aspects, so that he can offer solutions tailored to the problem he faces. For that reason, the design as a discipline is usually a bit general, a set of knowledge applicable to various fields of work , but that use geometry, arithmetic, logic , illustration, marketing, sociology or information technology for a process that, fundamentally, includes the following stages:
- Observation and analysis . Since the need for design arises from the daily life of the human being .
- Planning and projection. Proposing a way to solve the need detected.
- Construction and execution. Bringing to reality the projected and submitting it to the test of its operation.
The graphic design
This is perhaps one of the most popular branches of design today , given the visual aspect that predominates in contemporary culture . It is about the creation and projection of graphic objects: illustrations, compositions, logos, images, typefaces, etc., used in various industries and mass media , attending to aesthetic, communicational and symbolic aspects.
This branch of design has, in turn, segments applied to various fields of interest, such as:
- The editorial design He specializes in the graphic work of layout and preparation of book covers, magazines and other printed publications.
- The advertising design. He specializes in the creative work behind the advertising and marketing of products and services for consumption , creating ads, advertising or commercial illustrations.
- Corporate design. It specializes in the creation of business graphic motifs, such as logos, packaging and illustrations that reflect the corporate identity of a company or organization .
- Web design. He specializes in aspects of design that concern the Internet and the world 2.0, so he often ventures into audiovisual and interactive, even using knowledge of computer science and programming .
This is a branch of design that deals with conceiving serial and / or industrial products , that is, consumer or capital goods. Paying attention to the shape, use and useful life of objects, it seeks to maximize their functionality and make them better, more satisfying for the consuming public . In that sense, the industrial designer is dedicated to:
- Automotive design Or cars or parts for them.
- Aeronautical Design Or planes and ships or parts for them.
- Furniture design Or furniture and shelves or parts for them.
- Product design That can be appliances, ceramics, glasses, plastics, etc.
- Toy design Or spare parts for them.
- Design of machinery and equipment. With various manufacturing or productive purposes.
Due to the complexity of these processes, industrial design usually requires very specialized knowledge in terms of materials, machinery and services, which they want from their study throughout a university career.
It is a type of design focused on satisfying the specific needs of living spaces by the human being , either in its aesthetic or technological aspect. That is, it provides technical and constructive solutions for the exercise of architecture , which serves as a subsidiary discipline. Arguably, architectural design deals with the creative aspect of architecture.
The creation of clothing, clothing, accessories, footwear, jewelry and other objects of ornamental or functional use for the human being is the field of specialization of fashion design. He applies his creativity to the understanding and management of cultural, aesthetic, social and consumption trends of a given time in a particular place, however serving the style and ingenuity of its creator. It is distinguished from the cut and seam in the latter: in its artistic aspect, away from the mere craft of making a garment.
Fashion designers play an important role in the fashion industry, and often exhibit their designs in catwalk shows , in which various models wear their clothes to an audience. Fashion is, in that sense, one of the main cultural expressions of the different human cultures, and they play a prominent role in the preservation and transmission of moral, social and way of life values.