We explain what the bone system is and the parts it is made of. In addition, its various functions and possible diseases.
What is the bone system?
Bone system is called the complex and complete structure composed of the 206 bones of the human skeleton , as well as the cartilage, ligaments and tendons that allow them to connect properly to the musculature or other bones.
The bone system, together with the muscular and articular, constitutes the locotomor apparatus of the human body, that is, the one that allows precise and coordinated movement .
The bone system is then made up of:
- Bones . Rigid structures, mineralized from calcium and other metals , are the toughest and toughest parts of the human body and vertebrate animals. In its interior, in addition, is the medulla that fulfills hematopoietic functions (blood red blood cells are created).
- Cartilages . The cartilages are found at the ends of the bones, protecting them by serving as a buffer, so that one does not collide with another, thus avoiding wear. These are flexible and thick structures, mainly composed of collagen.
- Ligaments . Very resistant, dense and elastic fibrous tissues, which join the bones together at the points of rotation that are the joints. Thus, it is vital for the movement, but also to prevent the bones from getting out of place or moving unnaturally.
- Tendons . As well as the ligaments, they are thick and elastic fibrous tissues, which join the muscles to the rigid pieces of the bones, allowing the strength of the muscle cells to be transmitted to the bones and thus enabling voluntary movement.
Functions of the bone system
The bone system fulfills the following functions:
- Structure . The bones of the skeleton give the human body its definite shape and determine its posture. They provide stiffness and support to soft tissues, keeping everything in its respective place.
- Protection . Being hard and not very flexible pieces, the bones serve as an internal shield, as protection against the forces coming from outside the body, isolating and defending the vital organs.
- Movement . Together with the muscles, the bones give the body the possibility of coordinated voluntary movement, thus being able to move, use tools, etc.
- Hematopoiesis . Different types of blood cells, and even regulatory substances, are generated in the bone marrow.
- Storage . Various minerals such as calcium and phosphorus are stored in the bones, not only to provide them with hardness, but to be used later as an input in muscle contraction and other organic processes, thus being a last-minute resource store. On the other hand, the bones also allow the storage of certain types of lipids , in the yellow marrow inside.
Diseases of the bone system
The best known diseases that afflict the bone system are the following:
- Cancer . Produced in the bone marrow by abnormal multiplication of certain cells (myeloma) or sometimes between hardened cells of their stiffer part (sarcoma). It leads to weakening of the structure and painful local numbness.
- Osteoporosis . It is a chronic loss of calcium that hardens the bones, very associated with age and other processes of the human body, cause bone thinning and increased fragility, which requires a combined treatment with calcium supplements and physical exercise.
- Paget’s disease . It is a congenital condition that causes the malfunction of the cells that give rise to the bone, which leads to abnormal thickening and widening of the skeletal structure.
- Rickets . Due to a deficiency in vitamin D intake or some endogenous problem that prevents its absorption, patients with this disease have a progressive weakening of the bones, which makes them painfully fragile.