We explain what is system and what types of systems exist. System examples Systems in computer science and biology.
What is a system?
A system is understood as an ordered set of interrelated components , whether they are material or conceptual elements, endowed with a particular structure , composition and environment. It is a term that applies to various areas of knowledge, such as physics , biology and computer science .
The world can be approached from a systematic or systematic perspective, in which all objects are part of some type of system , from the particles of an atom to the cerebral cortex, representative democracy or whole numbers . Seen this way, a system is nothing more than a segment of reality that can be studied independently of the rest, but in which its components are interconnected.
The systems are studied in Systems Theory and General Systems Theory a discipline that addresses whatever they may be from a multiple, interdisciplinary perspective. According to her, any system is recognizable given its limits and interrelated and interdependent parts (its so-called subsystems ), to the point that the modification of an element necessarily modifies the functioning of the rest of the system.
Similarly, it is considered that a system is more than the mere sum of its parts, that is, within a system it is possible to anticipate the behavior of its components if the others are modified , and in addition the systems have a purpose to fulfill, An ultimate goal that guarantees your success.
Ultimately, all systems tend to entropy (disorder) and eventually fall apart into a larger one.
Systems can be classified into two broad categories:
- Conceptual systems . These are ordered and interrelated sets of concepts and ideas, which can be of four different types: individuals, predicates, sets or operators. They are abstract, intangible.
- Material systems . On the contrary, they are tangible, concrete, and are composed of physical components, that is, things with specific properties, such as energy, history, position, etc.
In our daily life systems abound, such as:
- Circulatory system of the human body, composed of the heart, veins and arteries, as well as the blood that carries oxygen throughout the body.
- Closed thermal system , as is the case of a thermos in which we store hot coffee, and the insulating material helps minimize heat loss, maintaining heat energy in the liquid particle system.
- Linguistic system , in the case of the language we speak, composed of signs and sounds , and the ability to create complex meanings (meanings) with it.
- Solar system , of which our planet is part, and which is made up of celestial stars orbiting the Sun in elliptical paths, attracted by its force of gravity .
- Electrical system , present in our homes and activated by turning on a switch to provide electricity to the light bulb that illuminates the room, for example.
In computer science , a system is understood as a set of data arranged according to a series of instructions or algorithms , which allow its location and recovery quickly and simply.
This is an information or computer system, a concept that is also used by other information sciences such as library science, but in the case of computer science, it is automatically managed by a computer .
Systems in biology
In biology , similarly, the notion of system is often used to refer to living or inanimate members of a specific ecosystem or habitat , which are usually interrelated through cycles of matter transmission ( trophic chains ) and also depend on the presence of the other and the abundance of natural resources such as sunlight, water and decomposing organic matter (in the case of plants and other energy producing organisms).