We explain what pedagogy is and what this science focuses on. In addition, the types of it that exist.
What is pedagogy?
It is science , belonging to the Social and Human Sciences , which is responsible for the study of education.
The main purpose of its study, is to study education as a socio-cultural phenomenon , that is, there is knowledge of other sciences that can help make people understand what education really is, such as history , psychology , sociology , politics , among others.
The concept of this term comes from the Greek (paidagogeo), ” paidos ” which means child and ” ago “, which means guidance. This science has the function of guiding educational actions based on certain pillars such as practices, techniques, principles and methods .
In the Royal Spanish Academy , pedagogy is defined as the science that studies education and teaching , which aims to provide sufficient content to be able to plan, evaluate and execute the teaching and learning processes , making use of other sciences such as named above.
There are two types of it, they are:
- General: Refers to universal questions about research and action on education.
- Specific : Through the passage of time , different bodies of knowledge have been systematized that have to do with the historical experiences and realities of each one.
Throughout history, many have been pedagogues who were responsible for raising their own theories about pedagogy, however, there are many who are still recognized today for their contributions, one of them is the Brazilian educator named Paulo Freire. He established an amount of twenty maxims considered fundamental in pedagogy from his point of view.
Pedagogy is associated with another science called andragogy, this is responsible for training men as permanent humans, taking into account their experiences and social and cultural experiences.
Types of pedagogy
- Child Pedagogy :The object of study is the education of children. In children’s pedagogy, educational evolutionary aspects are taken into account during development. The stage of growth of a child is very important, since it is in it the moment where fundamental competences are acquired for the rest oflife, so the work of educators is fundamental.
- Critical Pedagogy :The main objective of this type of pedagogy is to transform thetraditionalsystemand develop critical thinking in each of the students.
- Conceptual pedagogy: Conceptual pedagogy has as main objective to develop the thinking,valuesandabilitiesof each student taking into account their age. This type of pedagogy is divided into a total of three forms: affective, cognitive and expressive.
- Waldorf Pedagogy :This pedagogical model was created by the founder of anthroposophy, Rudolf Steiner. This type of pedagogy is based on the education of a person, on theirautonomyandfreedom, where the creative and artistic capacity of each person is mainly taken into account. It is structured on three levels, the first of which covers children up to six years of age and activities that focus on the development of the senses and corporeality, the next level is for children aged seven to thirteen, in This level takes into account the discovery that each of them has about the world. Then there is the last level, which goes until the age of twenty-one, here the thinking develops autonomously and the compression.
- Psychopedagogy : It is the relationship in psychology and pedagogy. These two sciences together give rise to a new one that is responsible for studying the psychological processes that occur during learning. The fields in which you usually develop and implement more frequently are in learning disorders and vocational guidance. At present it is a large number of children who must resort to psychopedagogy to be able to correct and focus on issues related exclusively to learning difficulties, so that this science helps them directly to develop a better compression process and they are given tools that will be very useful for their future.