We explain what the budding is and how this form of asexual reproduction occurs in plants, animals and examples of each.
What is the budding?
In biology, a form of asexual reproduction that consists of an unequal division of the parent’s body is known as gemination (from Latin geminus , “twin”).
It requires the growth of a physical prominence that can then separate and give rise to a whole new individual , or remain attached and start a colony. This will depend on the species of being alive and on the favorable conditions of the environment.
The budding as a reproductive process occurs both in plants and in some fungi (such as yeasts ), but also in some animals such as porifers, cnidarians and bryozoans. Like all forms of asexual reproduction, they have minimal or no genetic variety, that is, they create individuals genetically identical to the parent .
Many types of plants reproduce by budding: they create new individuals from buds on the stem or stem of the parent .
This capacity can be used to obtain new plants, because when taking an outbreak from the stem and placing it in water , it will take root and give rise to a new complete individual. In fact, many types of cacti, succulents and seedless plants reproduce easily in this way.
Budding in animals
In animals, budding is common, in the most primitive orders and genera , both unicellular and multicellular.
- Unicellular : The process begins with the duplication of the cell nucleus and the construction of a bud or protuberance in the cytoplasm of the parent, where the new nucleus will be located until, depending on the profitability of the environment , it will end up being separated byasymmetric mitosis . This yolk occurs in any part of the body or in specific regions thereof, depending on the species.
- Multicellular : In species such as corals, sponges or water hydras, the budding gives rise to the famous colonies of these underwater living beings, or to new individuals who can move away from their parents and not compete with them for food and space .
Examples of budding
They are famous examples of reproduction by budding corals, flat worms and jellyfish or aguamalas . In some of these cases, such as that of the planarians ( Planariidae ), sexual reproduction is always the favorite of the species, since it provides genetic variety, but in specific conditions the budding may be more convenient.
The laboratory experiment is very well-known in which, with a sharp instrument, the planarian body is cut lengthwise, and then it is observed how a completely identical new individual emerges from each piece.
Other types of asexual reproduction
In addition to sporulation, there are other mechanisms of non-sexual reproduction (that is, they involve a single individual and have little or no genetic variation), such as:
- Binary fission . Made by unicellular organisms, which replicate their DNA and cellular content. Thus they form a double individual. Its plasma membrane narrows, divides the cell and creates two new genetically identical individuals.
- Sporulation . It occurs thanks to specialized organs of the cell (sporangia, for example). In addition, these cells, called spores, are covered by a super-resistant shell. Spores can survive long periods and in very hostile conditions. Thus they manage to produce a new individual when the environment is conducive.
- Parthenogenesis . It is made by certain animals, such as flatworms, rotifers, tardigrades, insects, amphibians , fish, crustaceans and some reptiles. The new individual is genetically equal to the parent as it is created through the development of unfertilized female sex cells.