We explain what a project is and the types of projects that exist. In addition, the steps to follow to perform one and its elements.
What is a project?
A project is understood as a planning consisting of a set of activities that are interrelated and coordinated , with the express purpose of achieving specific results within the framework of the limitations imposed by prior conditioning factors: a budget , a time span or a series of established qualities.
Projects are usually understood as the preparation and written provision of the theoretical, material and human elements that will be needed to develop a unique product, service or result, so in certain areas it may be equivalent to outline, previous script, first draft, etc .
The formal and theoretical aspects of a project vary depending on the nature of the project and its object of study, as well as the parts that compose it. For example, some may emphasize their bibliographic sources , while others will do so in their methodology or their impact once finished.
A project is more likely to be successful when the leader (that is, who is in charge of it) establishes some type of control system or method through which all progress is monitored throughout the stages (or inconveniences) of the project based on what was planned. So that the necessary modifications can be made in time to achieve a better result and thus achieve all the objectives.
Types of projects
Projects can be classified according to their scope of action, as follows:
- Productive or private projects . Those who have as a further purpose profitability , that is, profit. They are usually presented in the business, entrepreneurship or industrial field.
- Public or social projects . Those who do not have for profit, but achieve an important impact on society or population at different scales: local, regional, even worldwide. They usually have as promoter the State institutions, NGOs , or corporate responsibility policies of large transnational corporations.
- Community projects . Those committed to the improvement in specific aspects of a given community, usually small, both urban and rural, through the satisfaction of their needs.
- Life projects . Those who focus on the life desires of an individual and their real chances of achieving self-realization.
- Research projects . Those whose objective is the documentation or acquisition of sources and materials around a chosen topic, as in the Ad.
The projects consist of four stages:
- Diagnosis . The need and opportunity of the project in its particular range of action is evaluated, to determine under what conditions it should occur and what stages it will involve, etc.
- Design . The options, tactics and strategies that can lead to success are discussed, that is, to meet the objective . The feasibility of the project, its relevance and its specific needs are evaluated.
- Execution . The implementation of what is established in the project.
- Evaluation . The conclusions of the project, the results thrown after their investigation are reviewed. It is a stage of control and information, based on the idea of improvement and accumulation of success factors over time.
Elements of a project
Projects usually consist of the following elements:
- Purpose and objectives . Section that explains the problem that the project would solve, the aims pursued and the specific, general and specific goals .
- Product or service . Here is a detailed description of the final product that you want to obtain, explaining how this would respond to what was stated in the objectives and also to its area of execution, that is, to other similar situations.
- Schedule of activities . The steps to follow to meet the objectives are explained, arranged chronologically and detailing the amount of time that would require your satisfaction.
- Budget . The cost that the application of the project will have for its recipients, as well as the detailed way in which the money will be used in each phase of the project.
- Expected results . A detailed description of the results to be obtained through the application of the project, often accompanied by its risk and profit margins.