The internal parts of a computer

We explain what are the internal parts of a computer and what are the characteristics and functions of each.

The internal parts of a computer

The computers , computers or computers are one of the most powerful technological tools ever invented by mankind, whose place in our lives has become increasingly essential with the passing of the time . Work, meet people, play, research … everything is done through one of these machines. Here we will talk about its internal components, that is, about the hardware that operates without the need for user interference.

The internal parts of a computer are those that are not commonly exposed , but rather form the “guts” of the device hidden inside the CPU (of the Central Processing Unit ). Its operation is totally essential for the correct behavior of the computer system.

Next we will detail the main components of a computer :


internal parts of a processor computer
The processor performs the calculations that support the entire software.

The processor is an electronic circuit that acts as the logical and arithmetic brain of the computer , since that is where the billions of calculations per second that support the entire software are carried out .

It is easily recognizable on the motherboard, because it is a black square with a small fan on top, since they usually need constant cooling to avoid an overload.

Processors ( microprocessors , today) can be of different brands and operate at high speeds, generally measurable in gigahertz (Ghz).


internal parts of a mother board computer
The various modules and cards are inserted into the motherboard.

Also known as the motherboard, it is the main CPU card , where the processor is located, the RAM slots, the ROM modules and where the other system cards are inserted directly.

It is a series of circuits on the same platform, which are the core of the system, integrating its different internal components. This is where the Firmware is located , that is, the factory pre-programmed software in the system.

Power supply

The heart of the system, which supplies electrical power to the motherboard and all other components of the CPU , so that they can operate when they are needed and that they can keep certain basic and indispensable systems going when the computer is turned off.


Its name comes from the initials of Random Access Memory or Random Access Memory . They are a series of modules connected to the Motherboard , where the programs to be executed go, both those activated by the system and those activated by the user. However, everything in RAM will be deleted when the system shuts down or restarts.

It should not be confused with the ROM ( Read-Only Memory , that is, Read-Only Memory ) that is contained in the motherboard, and from which only data can be extracted. Nor with disk storage space.

Hard disk

internal parts of a hard disk computer
The hard disk information can be recorded, read and erased.

Also known as “hard disk” (for translation of Hard disk ), it is the place where permanent information is stored in the computer system , that is, all the software contained in it, from the Operating System itself, to the programs or applications We install your users.

Being a unit of literacy , it is possible to enter and extract data from it, or what is the same, record, read and delete information.

Formerly, the Hard Disk was accompanied by disk reading units, floppy disks or various types of portable secondary storage. All this has disappeared today after the invention of USB ports and portable memories ( flash ). There are even some computer models that totally lack a hard disk.

Data cables

The data cables are used to transmit information between the CPU components , in the same way as our veins and arteries. There are different types of cables, such as the data bus (16, 32 and 64 bit), the IDE cable that connects the disks to the motherboard, or the SATA data cable. They are usually of specific colors and have specific terminals.

Graphics card

video card
The better the video card, the better the image quality.

The video card or video card is a secondary card, connected to the motherboard, which specializes in the processing of information related to video , that is, the emission of images and movement on monitors, projectors, etc.

Depending on their capabilities, therefore, we can have higher image quality and faster animations, or even three-dimensional effects or HD resolutions.

Sound card

Similar to the Video Plate, the Sound Plate is integrated to the Motherboard, but its work specializes in the processing of audio signals , that is, in the quality, speed and sharpness of the sound and musical emissions that the system is able to broadcast, which is key when watching movies, playing games, etc.

Network card

network board
The network card allows the computer to be connected with others.

The third type of card that is usually embedded in the Motherboard is the Network Board, which is an administrator of the computer connections that the system can establish with networks or directly with other computers.

These cards usually incorporate connection ports for telephone or fiber optic cables , and also WiFi adapters or wireless networks, which can be managed by the user using the appropriate software.


Due to the high current and information traffic within the system, the CPU is a very hot place, so a heat sink, in the form of a fan, is always necessary.

This device extracts hot air and allows internal temperatures to decrease , since overheating would stop the system and could even permanently damage some of its delicate components.

Tape recorder

It is the part of the computer that is responsible for reading and recording CDs, where it uses a special program, be it Roxio CD Creator, NERO, etc.


It refers to the internal part of the computer where all the programs and information they use are stored.

Types of memories:

  • Rom memory : it is a chip that contains a set of programs and information that are of great importance for the correct functioning of the computer, such as the control of the basic hardware, the autostart system and the diagnosis.
  • RAM memory : used to store or delete programs and information, as it is used as work memory. This can contain one or more chips.


It refers to a device that is responsible for sending a modulating signal through another known as a carrier.


It is an interface through which various data can be received and sent.

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