French Revolution” Timeline, causes, characteristics and consequences

We explain what was the French Revolutionand, the French revolution timeline,  its main events. In addition, its various causes and consequences.

  1. What was the French Revolution?

It is known as the French Revolution to a movement of political and social court that  occurred in the then Kingdom of France in the year 1798 , which shook the foundations of the absolutist monarchy of Louis XVI and led to the establishment of a republican and liberal government in its place.

This event is considered almost universally as the historical event that marked the beginning of the contemporary era in Europe and the West . The French Revolution and the Bonapartism that came later shocked the entire world and spread through the ideas of the French Enlightenment, summarized in the revolutionary motto of “freedom, equality, fraternity.”

The French Revolution began when the citizen masses, impoverished and subdued, opposed the feudal power, disobeyed the authority of the monarchy and lit the fuse of historical change.

Thus, they overthrew the aristocratic government and undertook the chaotic construction of a society based on the fundamental rights of all human beings .

However, not everything ended that same year, but it lasted about ten years (1789-1799) of violent changes and popular organization, during which the first universal rights of the human being were ruled , the Catholic Church was snatched much of the power that held and drafted the first republican constitution of Western history.

So many events, of course, did not occur without a significant margin of violence, both by the crown troops, who shot at the insurgent people, and by revolutionary ranks that guillotined the kings and their hostesses, along with those loyal citizens to the monarchy or to those who later found guilty of being counterrevolutionaries, during a period known as “Terror” (1792-1794).

In addition, the nascent French Republic had to face the intervention of foreign enemies such as the armies of Austria and Prussia , who came in defense of the monarchy, afraid of something similar happening in their own countries.

The French Revolution  had its end with the seizure of power by Napoleon Bonaparte , a revolutionary general who gave a coup d’ etat to return order to the troubled French Republic, shortly after proclaiming his own Empire and launching into the conquest of Europe.

The French Revolution Timeline

Some important moments in the French Revolution with the French revolution timeline.

the french revolution timeline

Year 1788 (French Revolution)

  • June 7: ” Tile Day ” in Grenoble . The Grenoblois throw tiles at the soldiers after exile from the Parliament of Dauphiné .
  • June 14: The notables of Grenoble meet at the Hôtel de Lesdiguières to convene the States General of the Dauphiné .
  • July 21: Meeting of the States General of the Dauphiné in Vizille .
  • August 8 : decision to convene the Estates General taken by Loménie de Brienne for the 1. The modalities of this convocation must be discussed.
  • August 25: Brienne resigns. He is replaced by Jean-Girard Lacués .
  • December 27: Jacques Necker , preparing the Estates General , accepts a regulation doubling the representation of the third estate , which consequently has as many deputies as the other two combined ( nobility and clergy ), however the vote remains by Order.
  • December 29: Marseille demands an increase in the number of elected officials from the third estate and the vote by head in the States General .

Year 1789 (French Revolution)

  • January: Publication of Father Sieyes ‘ brochure “  What is the third estate?  “
  • January 24: Publication of the regulations for the Estates General .
  • January 27: Fatal clashes in Rennes between young nobles and young bourgeois.
  • February 7: Order to write Cahiers de doléances .
  • March to May: Election of representatives to the Estates General.
  • March 23 and March 24: Food riot in Marseille causing the change of municipal regime, the creation of the citizen guard and the reform of the municipal tax system.
  • April 27: Riot in Paris , in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine , against the wallpaper manufacturer Réveillon.
  • April 30: Creation of the society of friends of the Constitution in Versailles , which will take the name of Club des Jacobins in December, when it settles in Paris .
  • May 2: Presentation by order of 1,200 deputies to the king .

Opening of the Estates General of 1789 in Versailles

  • May 5: Opening of the Estates General in Versailles in the Menus Plaisirs room.
  • May 6: Brissot publishes the first number of the “  French Patriot  ”. A decision of the Council of State prohibits the publication of any kind of newspaper without express authorization.
  • June 4: death of Dauphin Louis Joseph Xavier, at the age of seven.
  • June 13: Three members of the clergy join the third estate (three priests from Poitou.) Louis XVI, still affected by the death of his eldest son, does not react.
  • June 17: The third estate proclaims itself the National Assembly , the two other orders having refused the joint deliberation.
  • June 19: Louis XVI, for only reaction, decides to close the room of the Menus Plaisirs by pretext of works.
    • Barrere publishes the 1st  issue of the “Daybreak”.
    • New delegates of the Clergy join the third estate.
  • June 20: In the morning, the deputies come up against the closure of the Menus Plaisirs room. J.Guillotin will then propose to meet in the tennis court. In this room the deputies take an oath never to separate until France has a written constitution: it is the Oath of the Jeu de Paume .
  • June 22: The National Assembly meets at the Saint-Louis church in Versailles.
  • June 23:
    • Royal meeting  : The king himself goes to the tennis court, declares the maintenance of the three orders and cancels the deliberations of the while accepting a number of reforms from deputies of the States General (for example, the tax reform)
    • Mirabeau’s apocryphal apostrophe  : ”  We are here by the will of the people and we will only get out by the force of bayonets  “.
    • The National Assembly declares the person of its deputies inviolable.
    • Creation of Club Breton
  • June 26: Louis XVI removes the letters of seal .
  • June 27: the king gives in to the demands, renounces the three orders and accepts the constituent assembly.
  • July 9: proclamation of the Constituent Assembly
  • July 11: Dismissal from Necker . Discontent, unrest in Paris
    • Joseph-Gilbert Motier, Marquis de La Fayette presents a draft declaration of Human Rights to the Constituent Assembly.
  • July 12: harangue by Camille Desmoulins at the Palais-Royal .
  • July 13: Formation of a municipality and a bourgeois guard in Paris.
  • July 14: Storming of the Bastille
  • July 15:
    • following the formation of the first Paris Commune, Bailly becomes its first mayor.
    • The command of the National Guard of Paris is entrusted to the Marquis de La Fayette .
  • July 16: Necker is recalled to his post
  • July 17: Louis XVI at the Paris City Hall; Adoption by Louis XVI of the tricolor cockade .
  • July 18: Beginning of emigration with the departure of the great families of the kingdom (Condé, Artois, etc.).
  • July 20 – August 6: Great Fear .
  • July 28: 1st  issue of the Patriote français de Brissot .
  • August 4: Abolition of privileges and the feudal system , end of the Breton club .
  • August 19: In Marseille, the bourgeois guard shoots the crowd and provokes a riot repressed by the regulated troops (start of the Tourette affair ).
  • August 26: Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen .
  • September 11: the Constituent Assembly grants the king the right of veto .
  • October 5 – 6 : Revolt of the people of Paris .
    • women’s march on Versailles, which forces the king to withdraw his veto and sign the decrees abolishing privileges and the DDHC .
    • the king is forced to return to Paris and is installed in the palace of the Tuileries .
    • the Assembly settles in Paris.
  • October 21: Institution of martial law .
  • October 30: Law liberalizing usury .
  • November 2: Nationalization of the property of the Catholic clergy .
  • November 30: Definitive attachment of Corsica to France.
  • December 14: Law on the establishment of municipalities
  • December 19: Establishment of assignats to meet state debts.
  • December 22: France is divided into 83 departments.
  • December 24: Creation of the Club des Jacobins . Protestants obtain citizenship rights .

Year 1790 (French Revolution)

  • February 12: abolition of monastic and religious orders, and abolition of vows in France.
  • March 21: removal of the salt tax .
  • April 27: foundation of the Cordeliers Club
  • April 29 – April 30: in Marseille , capture of three forts by the National Guards with the support of the municipality and the people. The latter massacres the Chevalier de Beausset , major of Fort St-Jean .
Federation Day, at Champ-de-Mars , ( museum of the French Revolution ).
  • May 8: decree establishing the uniformity of weights and measures in France.
  • May 14: sale of the goods of the clergy.
  • May 21: second commune of Paris: Paris is divided into 48 sections, replacing the 60 old districts.
  • June 12: Avignon requests its attachment to France.
  • June 19: suppression of the nobility.
  • July 12: Vote on the civil constitution of the clergy.
  • July 14: Federation Day .
  • July 22: the Civil Constitution of the Clergy is approved by King Louis XVI .
  • July:  rise in the influence of clubs (including Cordeliers , Jacobins ).
  • August 27: transformation of assignats into paper money.
  • September 4: Resignation of Necker
  • October 21: tricolor: blue, white, red.

Year 1791

  • January 3: Obligation for the clergy to take an oath to the Civil Constitution.
  • February 4: oath at the assembly of priests
  • February 28: La Fayette disarms the knights with the dagger .
  • February to May: election of constitutional bishops to replace the 80 refractory bishops.
  • March 2: Decree of Allarde , abolition of corporations
  • March 10: Brief from Pope Pius VI condemning the Civil Constitution of the Clergy .
  • March 15: rupture of diplomatic relations between France and the Roman Church.
  • April 2: death of Mirabeau . The court will henceforth have as advisers Barnave , Duport and Lameth .
  • April 4: Mirabeau at the Panthéon in Paris .
  • April 21: resignation of La Fayette from the National Guard .
  • June 14: Vote on the Le Chapelier law abolishing corporations, prohibiting workers’ coalitions and strikes, thus completing the Allarde Decree .
  • June 15: Creation of national volunteer battalions
  • June 20: Varennes-en-Argonne  : Missed escape of the royal family, followed by the return under good escort to the Tuileries .
  • July 16: the Assembly restores the king in his prerogatives.
  • July 17: shooting at Champ-de-Mars .
  • July 18: Danton fled to England and Marat went into hiding. Foundation of the Club des Feuillants .
  • August 27: Declaration of Pillnitz ( Frederick William II and Leopold II ).
  • September 3: End of the debate on the Constitution and vote.
  • September 13: Louis XVI approves the Constitution of 1791 .
  • September 14: After a plebiscite , Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin are integrated into France.
  • September 25: promulgation of the Penal Code .
  • September 30: dissolution of the Constituent Assembly .
  • st  October: Opening of the Legislative Assembly .
  • October 16: Massacres de la Glacière in Avignon.
  • November 17: Pétion mayor of Paris in place of Bailly . He had La Fayette as his opponent .
  • November 25: creation of the Supervisory Committee (future General Safety Committee ).
  • December 3: letter from Louis XVI asking the King of Prussia to support him against the Revolution.

Year 1792

  • January: creation by Jean-Nicolas Pache , friend of Gaspard Monge , of the patriotic society of Luxembourg , including, in addition to Monge , Jean-Baptiste Marie Meusnier de la Place , Jean Henri Hassenfratz , and Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde .
  • January 25: Ultimatum to Leopold of Austria .
  • February 7: Alliance of Austria and Prussia .
  • March 9: The Minister of War, Narbonne-Lara , is replaced by Colonel de Grave .
  • March 19: Dumouriez appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs.
  • March 23: The leafy ministers are replaced by Girondins ministers  : Roland for the Interior and Clavière for Finance.
  • April 20: France declares war on Austria .
  • April 25: Rouget de l’Isle writes a song that will become La Marseillaise .
  • May 8: Resignation of the Minister for Grave War , replaced the next day by Joseph Servan .
  • June 13: The king dismisses the Girondin ministers Roland , Servan and Clavière; Dumouriez goes to war.
  • June 15: Resignation of Dumouriez. New leafy ministry , with Lajard à la Guerre.
  • June 20: The people invade the Tuileries , demanding the return of the ministers and the acceptance of several decrees to which the king has vetoed . The king is wearing the red cap. He doesn’t give in.
  • June 22: La Marseillaise , while it is still only called the “song of the Army of the Rhine”, is sung for the first time in Marseille at 11 rue Thubaneau by the Montpellier patriot François Mireur during a banquet organized by the Club of Friends of the Constitution.
  • June 30: La Fayette’s coup attempt fails.
  • July 2: Departure for Paris of the first battalion of Marseillais volunteers who will propagate “  the Marseillaise  ” and illustrate the during the capture of the Tuileries.
  • July 7: Kiss Lamourette .
  • July 10: Resignation of the leafy ministers.
  • July 11: Proclamation of the homeland in danger.
  • July 14: Olympe de Gouges , Etta Palm and Théroigne de Méricourt march to demand that women be able to enlist as volunteers in the army.
  • July 25: Brunswick manifesto .
  • Night of August 9 to 10: Training at the town hall of Paris of an insurrectionary Commune .
  • August 10: The sans-culottes seize the Tuileries. The royal family takes refuge in the Assembly. We decreed the creation of a new assembly: the National Convention .
    • appointment by acclamation by the legislative assembly of a provisional executive council , replacing the King’s Council , made up of six ministers: Danton for Justice, Roland for the Interior, Joseph Servan for War, Clavière for Finances, Lebrun for Affairs foreigners and Monge in the Navy.
  • August 11: Electoral reform: the future assembly will be elected by universal male suffrage.
  • August 13: The royal family imprisoned in the tower of the Temple.
  • August 17: At the request of Robespierre , establishment of a first revolutionary tribunal.
  • August 19: La Fayette goes into exile in Austria.
  • August 23: Capitulation of Longwy .
  • August 24: Establishment of the use of the guillotine for political executions. Louis Collenot d’Angremont and Arnaud de Laporte are its first victims.
  • August 26: Decree of exile for sworn priests
  • September 2: Capitulation of Verdun .
  • September 2: The royalist conspiracy of the Marquis de La Rouërie , in Brittany , is foiled.
  • September 2 – 7: September Massacres . Creation of the Maillard Tribunal.
  • September 9: Massacres of Versailles .
  • September 20:
    • Battle of Valmy .
    • Opening of the National Convention
  • September 21: abolition of the monarchy ; proclamation of the Ist Republic
  • September 22 ( 1st Vendémiaire Year I): Proclamation of Year I of the Republic.
  • End of September to November: Girondins against Montagnards at the National Convention.
  • September 25 (4 Vendémiaire): The French Republic is “one and indivisible”.
  • October 9 (18 Vendémiaire): Garat replaces Danton at the Ministry of Justice.
  • October 21 (30 Vendémiaire): Capture of Mainz (1792)
  • November 6 (16 Brumaire): Battle of Jemmapes .
  • November 14 (24 Brumaire): The French army enters Brussels .
  • November 20 (30 Brumaire): The iron cabinet .
  • November 27 (7 Frimaire): Annexation of Savoy .
  • November 29 (9 Frimaire): Suppression of the revolutionary tribunal of.
  • December 2 (12 Frimaire): Chambon , new mayor of Paris, replacing Pétion .
  • December 4 (14 Frimaire): A Belgian delegation comes to the Convention to express the gratitude of the Belgian people and to demand the independence of Belgium . The Convention immediately adopts the proposed decree.
  • December 11 (21 Frimaire): Opening of the trial of Louis XVI at the Convention.
  • December 15 (25 Frimaire): Decree imposing the French regime on the conquered countries.

Year 1793 (Year I of the revolutionary calendar)

  • 1st  January (12 Nivose Year I): Establishment of a Committee of General Defense .
  • January 7 (18 Nivôse): End of the king’s trial.
  • January 20 (1 Pluviôse): assassination of Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau by Paris
  • January 21 (2 Pluviôse): Execution of Louis XVI
  • January 22 (3 Pluviôse): Resignation of Roland , Minister of the Interior, replaced by Garat .
  • January 30 (11 Pluviôse): Death of Armand Tuffin from La Rouërie .
  • January 31 (12 Pluviôse): Annexation of Nice . Danton demands the annexation of Belgium .
  • 1st  February (13 Pluviôse): Declaration of war Britain and Holland.
  • February 4 (21 Pluviôse): Replacement of Pache in the War by General de Beurnonville .
  • February 8 (25 Pluviôse): Occupation of the Duchy of Deux-Ponts by France.
  • February 14 (26 Pluviôse): Pache elected mayor of Paris.
  • February 24 (6 Ventôse): The Convention decrees the levy en masse of 300,000 men for national defense.
  • March (Ventôse and Germinal): Revolt in Brittany and Vendée against the levy en masse, start of the Vendée and Chouannerie wars .
  • March 7 (17 Ventôse): Declaration of war on Spain.
  • March 10 (20 Ventôse): Creation of the Revolutionary Tribunal by Danton.
  • March 13: Combat of Chemillé in Vendée
  • March 15: First battle of Cholet Vendée
  • March 17 (27 Ventôse): Attachment of the principality of Salm (enclave).
  • March 18 (28 Ventôse):
    • Battle of Neerwinden .
    • Decree establishing a Public Safety Commission .
  • March 19: Battle of Chantonnay Vendée
  • March 21 ( 1st Germinal): Establishment of Supervisory Committees .
  • March 30: Battle of Saint-Lambert in Vendée
  • 1st  April (12 Germinal): Treachery of Dumouriez .
  • April 6 (17 Germinal): Creation of the Committee of Public Safety
  • April 11: Battle of Chemillé in Vendée
  • April 13 (24 Germinal): Arrest of Marat
  • April 22: Battle of Beaupréau Vendée
  • April 24 (5 Floréal): Trial and acquittal of Marat by the Revolutionary Tribunal.
  • April 29: Pierre Guyomar proposes to grant political equality to women.
  • May 4 (15 Floréal): Law of the maximum .
  • May 10 (21 Floréal): The Convention takes place at the Tuileries Palace .
  • May 16: First battle of Fontenay-le-Comte in Vendée
  • May 21: Election of the Extraordinary Commission of the Twelve .
  • May 23 (4 Prairial): Victory of the allies at the Battle of Famars .
  • May 25: Second battle of Fontenay-le-Comte in Vendée
  • May 27 – June 2 (8 to 14 Prairial): Mountain and Commune against the Girondins.
  • June 2 (14 Prairial): Arrest of 31 Girondins deputies
  • June 9: Battle of Saumur Vendée
  • June 18 (30 Prairial): Execution in Paris of 12 members of the Breton Association .
  • June 28: First battle of Luçon in Vendée
  • June 29 (11 Messidor): The Vendéens are pushed back at the battle of Nantes 2 .
  • July 3 (15 Messidor): The Dauphin is entrusted to a shoemaker, Antoine Simon .
  • July 5: First battle of Châtillon in Vendée
  • July 13 (25 Messidor): Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday . He left behind “Not having been able to corrupt me, they murdered me”.
  • July 17 (29 Messidor)
    • Death of Jacques Cathelineau , general-in-chief of the Vendéens.
    • Abolition of feudalism.
  • July 18: Battle of Vihiers in Vendée
  • July 23 (5 Thermidor): Capitulation of Mainz .
  • July 27 (9 Thermidor): Entry of Robespierre to the Committee of Public Safety.
  • July 30: Second battle of Luçon in Vendée
  • August (Thermidor): first wave of desecration of the royal tombs at the Saint-Denis basilica .
  • August 14: Third battle of Luçon in Vendée
  • August 15 (28 Thermidor): Resignation of Garat and replacement by Paré in the Interior.
  • August 23 (6 Fructidor): Mass levy of the male population and Reorganization of the French infantry corps
  • August 27 (10 Fructidor): Toulon surrenders to the British.
  • September 5 (19 Fructidor):
    • Terror on the agenda.
    • Battle of Chantonnay Vendée
  • September 8 (22 Fructidor): The French republicans defeat the allies at the Battle of Hondschoote .
  • September 13 (27 Fructidor): French troops defeat the Savoisiens at the Battle of Méribel .
  • October 15: Battle of La Tremblaye in Vendée
  • September 17 ( 1st  complementary day Year I): Law of the suspects .
  • September 19:
    • Battle of Pont-Barré in Vendée
    • Battle of Torfou in Vendée
  • September 22 ( st Vendémiaire Year II): The Spaniards defeat the French republicans at the Battle of Trouillas .
  • September 29 (8 Vendémiaire): Establishment of the maximum price
  • October 12 to 25 (21 Vendémiaire to 4 Brumaire): second wave of desecration of the royal tombs of the Saint-Denis basilica
  • October 9 (18 Vendémiaire): Takeover of Lyon .
  • October 11: Second battle of Châtillon in Vendée
  • October 16 (25 Vendémiaire): Execution of Marie-Antoinette of Austria  ; Battle of Wattignies , the Austrians are defeated.
  • October 17 (26 Vendémiaire): The Vendéens are defeated at the Battle of Cholet.
  • October 18 (27 Vendémiaire): The Vendeans cross the Loire , the start of the Virée de Galerne . Death of the Vendée general Charles de Bonchamps .
  • October 25 (4 Brumaire): Use of the republican calendar . Jean Chouan and Aimé Picquet du Boisguy at the head of several hundred men joined the Vendéens in Laval .
  • October 26: Battle of Entrammes in Vendée
  • October 27 (6 Brumaire): The Republicans are defeated by the Vendéens at the Battle of Entrammes
  • October 31 (10 Brumaire): Execution of the Girondins .
  • November 3 (13 Brumaire): The Vendéens and the Chouans take Fougères .
  • November 3: Death of the Vendée general Louis de Salgues de Lescure .
  • November 7 (17 Brumaire): Execution of Philippe d’Orléans .
  • November 8 (18 Brumaire): Execution of Madame Roland
  • November 10 (20 Brumaire): Abolition of the Catholic religion and cult of Reason
  • November 11 (21 Brumaire): Execution of Bailly , first mayor of Paris.
  • November 14 (24 Brumaire): The Vendéens are pushed back to the Siege of Granville.
  • November 17 (27 Brumaire): Beginning of the drownings in Nantes .
  • November 21: Battle of Dol in Vendée
  • November 23 (3 Frimaire): the Convention decides to close the Catholic churches in the capital.
  • November 24 (4 Frimaire): the Gregorian calendar is abolished and replaced by the republican calendar .
  • December 4 (14 Frimaire): Another failure of the Vendéens at the Siege of Angers .
  • December 13 (23 Frimaire): Battle of Le Mans , the Vendeans are massacred.
  • December 19 (29 Frimaire): Resumption of Toulon.
  • December 23 (3 Nivôse): The Vendéens are crushed at the battle of Savenay 2 , end of the Virée de Galerne .
  • December (Frimaire): Retreat of the Allies beyond the Rhine.

Year 1794 (French Revolution)

  • January 12: Scandal of the Compagnie des Indes .
  • January 17: The “infernal columns” of Turreau in Vendée .
  • January 19: The British gain a foothold in Corsica .
  • February 4: Abolition of slavery in the colonies.
  • March 11: creation of the commission responsible for creating the Central School of Public Works, the future Polytechnic School , including Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot .
  • March 23: Battle of Mortagne in Vendée
  • March 24: Execution of the Hebertists .
  • April 2: the company of balloonists is created to use balloons as observation balloons . It is the first air unit in the world.
  • April 5: Execution of Danton , his supporters and Camille Desmoulins .
  • April 13: seven acquittals and nineteen death sentences, including Lucile Desmoulins , Chaumette , General Dillon , ex-bishop Gobel and the Veuve d’Hébert , in the Luxembourg Conspiracy .
  • May 10: Arrest of Pache , mayor of Paris, replaced by Fleuriot-Lescot .
  • June 8: Feast of the Supreme Being .
  • June 10: Law of 22 Prairial on the powers of revolutionary tribunals  : Great Terror.
  • June 26: Battle of Fleurus (French victory in Belgium).
  • July 27: Arrest of Robespierre ( 9 Thermidor ).
  • July 28 and 29: Execution of the Robespierrists.
  • August 9: Arrest of Bonaparte in Nice , suspected of Robespierrism. He will be released eleven days later.
  • August 10: Reorganization of the revolutionary tribunal .
  • September 19: As part of the systematic looting of Belgium by the French Republic, the first seized works of art arrive in Paris.
  • September 28: official creation of the Central School of Public Works, future Polytechnic School .
  • October 10: official creation of the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts .
  • October 11: entry ceremony into the Panthéon by Jean-Jacques Rousseau .
  • October 30: official creation of the École normale supérieure .
  • November 11: Closure of the Jacobins club .
  • December 8: Return of the seventy-three Girondins to the Convention.
  • December 24: Repeal of the maximum .

Year 1795 (French Revolution)

  • February 17: signature at the Château de la Jaunaye, of a treaty between the Vendée insurgents represented by François de Charette , and the Convention , on religious freedom.
  • 1st  April: Insurrection of 12 Germinal .
  • April 5: first Treaty of Basel (Prussia withdraws from the war)
  • May 20: Uprising of the 1st Prairial Year III
  • May 31: Suppression of the Revolutionary Tribunal .
  • June 8: Death of the Dauphin ( Louis de France (1785-1795) )
  • June 23 – July 21: landing of the emigres at Quiberon 2 , organized by Louis XVIII of France and the Comte d’Artois (future Charles X of France ) to lend a hand to the Chouannerie and to the Catholic and Royal Army in Vendée .
  • July 20 (2 Thermidor): Sieyès delivers a speech in which he proposes the establishment of a “constitutional jurie” having a role of guardian of the Constitution.
  • July 22: second Treaty of Basel ( Spain ceases the fight)
  • August 22: Constitution of 1795 .
  • September 23: the metric system is introduced by the law of 1st  Vendémiaire Year IV (23 September 1795) . This will be made compulsory in France on the occasion of its fifth anniversary by the decree of 13 Brumaire year IX () when the use of any other system becomes prohibited.
  • October 5: Royalist insurrection of 13 Vendémiaire Year IV , stopped by Napoleon
  • October 26: The Convention is dissolved; start of the Directory
  • : release and exile of Marie-Thèrèse , the daughter of Louis XVI until then detained in the Prison of the Temple

Year 1796 (French Revolution)

  • February 26: Reorganization of the French infantry corps
  • March 5: War against the Holy Roman Empire
  • March 9: Wedding of Napoleon Bonaparte and Joséphine
  • March 29: François de Charette , leader of the Vendée insurrection , is shot in Nantes .
  • April 27: Attack on the Courrier de Lyon .
  • May 10: Battle of Lodi (Napoleon in Italy)
  • May 10: Arrest of Gracchus Babeuf and the main leaders of the Conjuration of Equals
  • July: Siege of Mantua
  • September 22: First Olympiad of the Republic

Year 1797 (French Revolution)

  • January 14: Victory of Rivoli
  • April 18: Peace of Leoben
  • May 27: Execution of Babeuf
  • July 8: The Cisalpine Republic is established.
  • September 4: coup of 18 fructidor .
  • October 17: Treaty of Campo-Formio

Year 1798

  • February 6: the Directory sends Gaspard Monge to Rome
  • February: The Roman Republic is proclaimed.
  • April: The Helvetic Republic is proclaimed.
  • May 11: Coup d’Etat of 22 Floréal .
  • June 18: Execution of Antoine-Joseph Moneuse , one of the leader of the Chauffeurs du Nord.
  • July 21: Battle of the Pyramids
  • 1st  August  : Battle of Aboukir
  • September: Jourdan law establishing military service
  • October 12: Revolts break out in Belgium against the French occupier.
  • October 24: The revolts against the French occupier spread in Belgium .
  • November 2: Revolts break out on the Island of Malta against the French occupier.
  • November 6: Execution of François Salembier , one of the leader of the Chauffeurs du Nord.
  • November 4: In Belgium , 8000 priests are proscribed and deported because of the revolts which are raging there against the French occupier.
  • November 13: The Belgian peasants revolted against the French occupier take the town of Diest , under the leadership of Emmanuel Rollier .
  • December 4: Massacre of Hasselt perpetrated by French troops and which puts an end to the Belgian revolt.
  • December 24: Alliance between Russia and Great Britain

Year 1799

  • May 20: Bonaparte failed in front of Saint-Jean-d’Acre .
  • June 17 – June 19: Battle of Trebia ( Suvorov beats the French)
  • June 18: Coup d’Etat of 30 Prairial
  • August 24: Bonaparte leaves Egypt.
  • October 16: Arrival of Bonaparte in Paris.
  • October 22: The Russians withdraw from the coalition
  • November 9: Coup d’Etat of 18 Brumaire  : end of the Directory; establishment of the Consulate
  • December 25: Entry into force of the Constitution of the year VIII
  • December 26: Creation of the Council of State .
  1. Characteristics of the French Revolution

French Revolution
The republican stage was anarchic and difficult, with many internal clashes.

The Revolution was carried out quickly, but the following years were of complex reorganizations and internal confrontations between the different revolutionary factions that aspired to power. In general, three stages of the French Revolution are distinguished:

  • Monarchical stage  (1789-1792) . During the first stage we tried to live with the monarchy, setting limits and limiting its power, through a National Assembly in which the plain people had representation.
  • Republican stage (1792-1804) . The failure of the previous stage led to the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the Republic through popular political organization and debate about how to govern the new model. It was an anarchic and difficult stage of many internal confrontations.
  • Imperial stage (1804-1815) . The closure of the Revolution comes with the rise of Bonaparte to power, who paradoxically made himself proclaim emperor and returned to France to a monarchical, although modern scheme.
  1. Causes of the French Revolution

The causes of the French Revolution were:

  • The rigor of absolutism . Absolutism gave the kings all political, legal and economic power, without being contradicted in any way, which also made them responsible for the economic disasters that occurred, whether or not they were really responsible.
  • The inequalities of the feudal regime . It is estimated that of the 23 million inhabitants of France at the time, only 300 thousand belonged to the privileged classes of the aristocracy or clergy. The great remaining mass was plain town with lower rights and possibilities.
  • The misery and marginalization of the flat people . The living conditions of the flat people were very poor: hunger, marginalization, illness, enslaving work and no prospect of social ascent or improvement.
  • The ideas of the Enlightenment . Ideas regarding equality between men and faith in the reason of philosophers and writers such as Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot or Montesquieu, greatly influenced the mentality of the time, forging the aspirations for a more modern social system and less influenced by The church and religion .
  1. Consequences of the French Revolution

French Revolution
The motto of freedom, equality and fraternity led to the first human rights law.

The consequences of the French Revolution were:

  • End of the feudal order . It ended the monarchy and the separation of society into fixed and immovable classes: aristocracy, clergy and servants. Thus, the republic was reborn as a system of government in the West.
  • First proclamation of universal human rights . The motto of freedom, equality and fraternity led to the drafting of the first human rights law without distinction of race or creed or birth.
  • Influence in the American colonies .  The  American colonies of Europe saw in the French Revolution an example to follow and their ideals marked their own independence processes. 
  • Rise of Bonapartism . The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte and his French empire, as well as the European wars that followed him, put an end to this historical period.

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