We explain what the reports are and how is the structure of a report. In addition, how it can be classified and meanings of this term.
What is a report?
The report refers to a statement, written or oral, that describes the qualities, characteristics and context of a fact . It is, therefore, an orderly elaboration based on observation and analysis . The purpose of preparing a report is highly variable, although it always presupposes the eventual need to inform others of something that has happened.
In the written report, the formal and informative language must prevail , with a strong load of objectivity derived from the idea that what is provided there corresponds to reality , and could be used to thoroughly know facts already happened, and anticipate what That hasn’t happened yet.
They are usually organized around a basic structure that includes:
- Introduction. which briefly explains what the report will be about, with an anticipation of what was thought to happen and thepreliminary objectives .
- Body. in which the main information is detailed, in many cases with subtitles and paratextual elements, and eventually, the steps that guided the investigation along a certain path.
- Conclusion. which will consider the most important results.
- Bibliography. which details who contributed the data and how, in order to have, in addition to the results, the sources that provided them. It is included at the end of the report.
In oral reports, there are some important differences:
- He should know very well the spirit of the report, what he wants to get with that minute and how the investigation was developed.
- It should be clear and brief, without exceeding details, nor omitting important parts. Here the knowledge about oratory comes into play , but what is expected is that with the same structure ( introduction , body, conclusion ), as he advances in his presentation, the listener can anticipate the conclusion.
- The bibliography may be at the hand of the informant, who will go to it when he needs to reinforce the validity of his statements.
Regardless of whether they are written or oral reports, these can be classified according to the recipient or the scope for which it is prepared:
- I technical eports. They are research on social, psychological, economic phenomena, of groups of people, in general, adapted for organizations that feed on these data. Perhaps the best known is the census, which is carried out house by house periodically in almost all countries, and that after a time of compilation produces reports with different data.
- I scientists eports. They have to do with harder sciences, and with a more relevant role of technical concepts, which will probably allow analyzing results and rethinking the way in which science develops.
- Disclosure reports. They are those who have the first intention of massifying their arrival: they seek to adapt the results of research done with technical processes to the competencies of any citizen , so that they can access the conclusion even without having technical knowledge.
Other report meanings
There are two areas in which the word report has a very specific meaning:
- Right. In law , the report is understood as the study that the court decrees at the request of one of the parties, which arises when there is a question of difficult solution.
- Accounting. In accounting , the document presented next to the financial statements is known as a report once the accounting year is over, which complements and explains in words what is shown in those documents.