We explain what non-experimental research is and the two types that exist. In addition, an example of this research.
What is a non-experimental investigation?
As the name implies, a non-experimental investigation is a type of research that does not draw its definitive conclusions or its work data through a series of reproducible actions and reactions in a controlled environment to obtain interpretable results, that is: through of experiments. Not for that, of course, it is no longer a serious, documented and rigorous investigation of its methods.
In other words, this type of research does not deliberately manipulate the variables that it seeks to interpret , but is content to observe the phenomena of interest in its natural environment, and then describe and analyze them without the need to emulate them in a controlled environment. Those who carry out non-experimental investigations play a role as observers .
There are two main types of non-experimental research:
- Investigations of transversal design . In this type of design, a state of the matter in the matter is approached, that is, data is collected from a single moment, in order to describe the present variables and analyze their incidence or their responsibility in what happened in the investigation. This means using descriptive indicators (measuring or describing a variable or factor) and causal indicators (offering explanations regarding the indicators).
- Longitudinal design investigations . On the contrary, in these investigations, samples are carried out over time, considering certain variables and their relationships to each other, to determine evolutions, trends, links, etc. In this way they allow us to understand the complex group reactions of a sector of the population , and can be combined with other measurements to obtain a broader picture.
Example of non-experimental research
Examples of non-experimental investigations are statistical measurements , in which public opinion is consulted on an issue in order to determine a joint position. Or the investigations that, having a set of statistical data available, proceed to interpret and organize them in order to obtain as much relevant data as possible.
Another possible example is documentary research: consultation of bibliographic or hemographic sources , reading of previous authors and exposing the findings in an information, essay or monograph . In this case, controlled experiments are not carried out either, but rather the professional and / or personal vision of the consulted author or the researcher himself , if applicable.