The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development

What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?

HIV/AIDS often appears in a phrase that represents a meaning. In fact, HIV and AIDS are two distinct concepts.

HIV refers to the human immunodeficiency virus. When a virus enters people’s blood, it is infected with HIV (HIV-positive).

HIV is a system that attacks the body’s immune system. If the body’s immune system is seriously damaged by the virus, it will develop into “AIDS” (AIDS), and its medical name is “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.” This means that the body is unable to withstand some common bacteria and viruses and becomes more susceptible to viral infections and illnesses.

Being diagnosed with HIV in the blood does not mean that you have AIDS or are about to die. Effective treatment can reduce the degree of HIV infection of the immune system, so that many people living with HIV still live a healthy, fulfilling and satisfying life.

How is HIV spread?

HIV is found in human body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk. The spread of HIV can only be completed by the body fluid of the infected person entering the blood of another person’s body.

HIV can only be transmitted through the following channels:

  • Unsafe sex (sexual intercourse without condoms).
  • Injecting drugs by sharing needles, syringes and other syringes.
  • Body piercing and tattooing using unsterilized instruments.
  • Mothers with HIV transmit the virus to their babies during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
  • Transfusion or use of blood products in other countries. In Australia, blood transfusions and blood products are safe.

The following contacts are not contagious to HIV:

  • cough
  • sneeze
  • kiss
  • Spitting
  • Tears contact
  • Shared tableware and cookware
  • bed linings
  • WC
  • bathroom
  • Mosquito bites, etc.

How can I avoid getting HIV?

Prevention of sexual communication:

When you have unprotected sex with HIV-infected people (without condom use), HIV can invade your blood circulatory system from small wounds on the vagina, penis, and anal mucosal surfaces.

The safe way to avoid HIV transmission is:

Always use a new condom and a water-soluble lubricant (such as KY Jelly or Wet stuff) for every vaginal or anal intercourse, and also help prevent most sexually transmitted diseases.

How to use condoms

1. Unpack and be careful not to scratch the condom.
2. Use your index finger and thumb to squeeze out the air at the top of the condom, then put it along the penis into the bottom (if necessary, flip the foreskin first).
3. After putting on the condom, apply a water-soluble lubricant to the outer layer.
4. After sexual intercourse, hold the condom at the end of the root of the penis and carefully remove it to prevent semen from overflowing.
5. Discard used condoms. Never use a used condom!

Injecting drugs, body piercing or tattooing:

HIV can be transmitted by sharing a needle/syringe or using a used body piercing/tattoo vessel.

The way to avoid the spread of needles
Is to never share or use needles used by others, needles or syringes to inject drugs.

Avoid body puncture/tattoo vessels to spread the virus by
Routine registration, using a disposable needle or a professional site that is strictly disinfected according to standard requirements for body piercing or tattooing. This will also protect you from hepatitis B and C infection.

Mother-to-child transmission:

Without effective treatment, HIV-positive mothers can transmit the virus to the baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. In Australia, because HIV treatment is readily available, HIV-positive women have a high chance of giving birth to healthy babies through caesarean section. If you are HIV positive/infected woman, pregnant or planning to become pregnant, you should discuss this with your doctor as soon as possible.

Doctors strongly recommend that women who are HIV-infected do not breastfeed. You can talk to your doctor about other ways to feed your baby.

Blood transfusions and blood products:

In Australia, blood transfusions are safe. All blood and blood products are tested for HIV. People living with HIV cannot donate blood. However, blood transfusions are not safe in some countries overseas.

How does HIV affect the immune system?

HIV is a virus. Viruses are very small microorganisms that can enter the body and cause disease. Many types of viruses infect humans through different pathways, causing many kinds of diseases, such as the flu is transmitted through the air, genital herpes is infected by the body, and polio is infected by drinking contaminated water. Of. HIV can only be transmitted directly into the bloodstream.

Your immune system

The immune system is your body’s natural defence system. Mainly to protect you from infection and fight disease. The immune system is made up of many kinds of cells that work together to identify and eliminate foreign viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. White blood cells (such as CD4 T cells) are important immune cells to help coordinate the immune system.

What does HIV do?

HIV attacks immune cells. In particular, infection and utilization of CD4 cells as a factory replication virus and thus destruction of CD4 cells. The more CD4 cells are destroyed, the weaker the immune system is. The weaker the immune system, the greater the risk of infection and disease. As time goes by without treatment, people with CD4 cells are at a dangerous level and develop into AIDS.

Your body’s reaction

To fight HIV, your body produces an antibody. However, the amount of antibody produced is not as good as the replication of the virus. Receiving treatment helps the body fight the virus effectively.

HIV’s life cycle

  1. 1. HIV goes into the bloodstream.
  2. 2 & 3. Attach and enter CD4 cells.
  3. 4. The virus distributes genetic information to cells.
  4. 5. A special process enables this genetic information to become part of the CD4 cell and allow it to enter the nucleus.
  5. 6. This CD4 cell is now infected with HIV forever.
  6. 7. The virus begins to replicate.
  7. 8. The CD4 cells eventually rupture, releasing the newly produced virus into the bloodstream. These newly generated viruses then find more CD4 cells, produce more replication, and release more HIV.

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