We elaborate the uses of sodium and atomic properties with characteristics. Sodium is a silver-white chemical element with an atomic number 11. Its symbol is Na and it belongs to the group of alkali metals and its usual state in nature is solid. Sodium is located at position 11 on the periodic table.
On this page you can discover the chemical properties of sodium and information about sodium and other elements on the periodic table such as lithium, potassium, magnesium or hydrogen. You will also learn what sodium is for and you will learn what its uses are through its properties associated with sodium such as its atomic number or the usual state in which sodium can be found.
You will be able to see qualities of sodium such as its melting and boiling point, its magnetic properties or what its chemical symbol is. In addition, here you will find information about its atomic properties such as the distribution of electrons in sodium atoms and other properties.
For some elements, some of this information is unknown. In these cases we show the properties attributed to them.
Properties of sodium
Sodium belongs to the group of alkali metals. This group of elements is characterized by having a single electron at its outermost energy level and they tend to lose it, thus forming a monopositive ion. This tendency of alkali metals such as sodium is due to their low ionization energy and their low electronic affinity.
The state of sodium in its natural form is solid (non-magnetic). Sodium is a silver white chemical element and belongs to the group of alkali metals. The atomic number of sodium is 11. The chemical symbol for sodium is Na. The melting point of sodium is 370.87 degrees Kelvin or 98.72 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius. The boiling point of sodium is 1156 degrees Kelvin or 883.85 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius.
Sodium is a mineral that our body needs for its proper functioning and can be found in food. Through the following link, you can find a list of foods with sodium .
Uses of sodium
Sodium is an essential element for life. It is present in large quantities in the oceans and rivers. If you have ever wondered what sodium is for , here is a list of its possible uses:
- Sodium is used for decalcification of metals. This gives the metal a smooth surface.
- Sodium metal is also used to refine metals, such as zirconium and potassium , from their compounds.
- Molten (liquid) sodium is used as a coolant in many nuclear reactors. It can be used individually or it can be combined with potassium.
- Sodium is added to fatty acids to make sodium salts. These salts are much harder (with higher melting points) than potassium soaps.
- The sodium melt test uses high reactivity, high solubility, and a low melting point to determine the presence of halogens, nitrogen, and sulfur in a sample.
- Sodium can be used as a reducing agent to transform some organic molecules into new forms.
- Sodium vapor lamps (often used in street lights) are a very efficient way of producing light from electricity. These lamps emit a characteristic yellow-orange light.
- Sodium chloride is a material that has a high heat transfer.
- Sodium can be used alone or with potassium to create dry solvents (called desiccants).
Atomic properties of sodium
The atomic mass of an element is determined by the total mass of neutrons and protons that can be found in a single atom belonging to this element. As for the position where to find sodium within the periodic table of the elements, sodium is in group 1 and period 3. Sodium has an atomic mass of 22,98976928 (2) u u.
The electronic configuration of sodium is [Ne] 3s1. The electronic configuration of the elements, determines the form in which the electrons are structured in the atoms of an element. The average radius for sodium is 180 pm, its atomic radius or Bohr radius is 190 pm, its covalent radius is 154 pm, and its Van der Waals radius is 227 pm. Sodium has a total of 11 electrons whose distribution is as follows: In the first layer it has 2 electrons, in the second it has 8 electrons and in its third layer it has 1 electron.
Characteristics of sodium
Below you can see a table showing the main characteristics of sodium.
|Density||968 kg / m3|
|Atomic mass||22.98976928 (2) uu|
|Average radius||180 pm|
|Covalent radius||154 pm|
|Van der Waals radio||227 pm|
|Electronic configuration||[Ne] 3s1|
|Electrons per layer||2,8,1|
|Oxidation states||1 (strong base)|
|Crystal structure||body centered cubic|
|Melting point||370.87 K|
|Boiling point||1156 K|
|Heat of fusion||2,598 kJ / mol|
|Vapor pressure||1.43 × 10-5Pa at 1234 K|
|Specific heat||1230 J / (K · kg)|
|Electric conductivity||21 × 106 / m S / m|
|Thermal conductivity||141 W / (Km)|