We elaborate the uses of silicon and atomic properties with characteristics. Silicon is a bluish dark gray chemical element with an atomic number of 14. Its symbol is Si and it belongs to the group of metalloids and its usual state in nature is solid. Silicon is located at position 14 on the periodic table.
On this page you can discover the chemical properties of silicon and information about silicon and other elements on the periodic table such as carbon, germanium, aluminum or phosphorus. You will also learn what silicon is for and know its uses through its properties associated with silicon such as its atomic number or the usual state in which silicon can be found.
You can see qualities of silicon such as its melting and boiling point, its magnetic properties or what its chemical symbol is. In addition, here you will find information about its atomic properties such as the distribution of electrons in silicon atoms and other properties.
For some elements, some of this information is unknown. In these cases we show the properties attributed to them.
Properties of silicon
Silicon is part of the elements called metalloids or semi-metals. These types of elements have intermediate properties between metals and nonmetals. As for its electrical conductivity, this type of materials to which silicon belongs, are semiconductors.
The state of silicon in its natural form is solid (non-magnetic). Silicon is a dark blue-gray chemical element and belongs to the group of metalloids. The atomic number of silicon is 14. The chemical symbol for silicon is Si. The melting point of silicon is 1687 degrees Kelvin or 1414.85 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius. The boiling point of silicon is 3,173 degrees Kelvin or 2,900.85 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius.
Uses of silicon
Silicon is the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust and is vital for the construction industry. If you’ve ever wondered what silicon is for , here is a list of its possible uses:
- Silicon dioxide and silica (in the form of clay or sand) are important components of bricks, concrete, and cement.
- Silicon is a semiconductor. This means that the electrical flow can be controlled through the use of silicon parts. Therefore, silicon is very important in the electrical industry. Silicon components are used in computers, transistors, solar cells, LCD screens, and other semiconductor devices.
- Most silicon is used in the manufacture of aluminum and silicon alloys to produce castings. The parts are produced by pouring the molten aluminum and silicon material into a mold. These cast parts are generally used in the automotive industry to make car parts.
- Putty “Silly Putty” used to be made by adding boric acid to silicone oil.
- Silicon carbide is a very important abrasive.
- Silicates can be used to make both ceramic and enamel.
- Silicon-containing sand is a very important component of glass.
- Silicone, a polymer derived from silicon, is used in oils and waxes, breast implants, contact lenses, explosives, and pyrotechnics (fireworks).
- In the future, silicon can replace coal as the main source of electricity.
Atomic properties of silicon
The atomic mass of an element is determined by the total mass of neutrons and protons that can be found in a single atom belonging to this element. As for the position where to find silicon within the periodic table of the elements, silicon is in group 14 and period 3. Silicon has an atomic mass of 28.0855 u.
The electronic configuration for silicon is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The electronic configuration of the elements, determines the form in which the electrons are structured in the atoms of an element. The average radius of silicon is 110 pm, its atomic radius or Bohr radius is 111 pm, its covalent radius is 111 pm, and its Van der Waals radius is 210 pm. Silicon has a total of 14 electrons whose distribution is as follows: In the first layer it has 2 electrons, in the second it has 8 electrons and in its third layer it has 4 electrons.
Below you can see a table showing the main characteristics of silicon.
|Appearance||bluish dark gray|
|Density||2330 kg / m3|
|Atomic mass||28.0855 u|
|Average radius||110 pm|
|Covalent radius||111 pm|
|Van der Waals radio||210 pm|
|Electronic configuration||[Ne] 3s2 3p2|
|Electrons per layer||2, 8, 4|
|Crystal structure||face centered cubic|
|Melting point||1687 K|
|Boiling point||3173 K|
|Heat of fusion||50.55 kJ / mol|
|Vapor pressure||4.77 Pa at 1683 K|
|Specific heat||700 J / (K · kg)|
|Electric conductivity||2.5210-4S / m|
|Thermal conductivity||148 W / (Km)|