Chemistry

Properties Of Matter

Matter is everything that has a mass, occupies a place in space and becomes energy. Therefore, the properties of matter are those chemical and physical characteristics that compose and describe it .

The properties of matter can be in turn:

  • Extensive properties , which depend on the amount of matter present (such as mass and volume), and
  • Intensive properties , which do not depend on the amount of matter (such as hardness and density).

Matter can exist in three fundamental states (four, if the plasma is included): liquid, solid and gaseous.

Physical properties

Materials like rubber and springs change their shape or volume when a force is applied, but they can return to their original state.

Physical properties are characteristics of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the chemical nature of the substance . For example:

  • Mass : corresponds to the amount of material measured in kilograms (unit of mass) by means of a balance. It is an extensive property.
  • Volume : is the space occupied by the matter that is measured in cubic meters or liters. It is an extensive property.
  • Severability : is the property that implies that the matter can be divided into several parts.
  • Compressibility : reduction of the volume of matter by compression. For example: the air that exists in the tires is compressed.
  • Elasticity : corresponds to the return to the original volume of matter after it stops being compressed. For example: when the air leaves the tires, it returns to its volume in the atmosphere.
  • Inertia : property of matter that indicates the resistance to change, that is, that maintains its state of rest or movement unless a force is applied.
  • Organoleptic properties : are those characteristics that can be perceived by the senses, such as taste, color, smell, hardness or texture.
  • Boiling point : is the temperature at which a substance boils. It is an intensive property.
The chemical properties are determined by how the compounds or elements react.

They are characteristics of matter that result from chemical transformations or reactions , therefore, the structure changes. For example:

  • Heat of combustion : is the energy released when a compound is completely burned (combustion).
  • Chemical stability : refers to the ability of a compound to react with water (hydrolysis) or with air (oxidation). For example: an iron bar that is left in the rain or outdoors will corrode.

Exercises of properties of matter

Next, we present some practical exercises to know different properties of the subject.

1. Mass

Place different objects on a scale, weigh them, note them and compare the differences. What is the object with the most mass?

2. Impenetrability and volume

Place one of the objects mentioned in exercise 1 inside a vessel with water. When verifying that the water level rises, it will be in front of the impenetrability characteristic, just as the increase in the water level corresponds to the volume of the object.

3. Severability

4. Combustion

Taking the proper precautions, place a sheet of paper in a container (preferably glass) and burn it. The leaf was transformed by reacting with the oxygen in the air in the presence of fire.

5. Elasticity and compressibility

Inflate a rubber balloon and close it. The air inside the balloon is compressed, but the balloon has been stretched in turn to contain the air inside. Open a hole in the balloon. What happens now?

6. Organoleptic properties

Sell ​​the eyes of two people and ask them to guess the objects that are given by means of the senses of touch (texture), smell (smell) and taste (taste).

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