BIOLOGY

Osseous (Bony) System With Diagrame And Examples

We express the Osseous Bony System With Diagrame and examples. It is the set of organs that gives support, form and protection to the body. It also allows movement to the body. If the bony system does not exist, we would be a deformed and flattened mass.

The bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and joints, together with the muscles work in teams to allow the mobility of the human body.

Components Of The Bone System

The bony system is composed of connective tissue, a type of tissue that supports other tissues and organs. This includes the bone tissue, connective tissue of dense collagen and cartilage. The components of the skeletal system are the skeleton, the cartilage, the tendons, the ligaments and the joints.

 

  • bones of the skull ( Ossa cranii ):
    • forehead (1) (the frontal )
    • parietal (2) ( parietal bone )
    • temporal (3) ( temporal )
    • occipital (4) (the occipital )
    • zygoma (5) ( os zygomaticum )
    • maxilla (upper jaw ) (6) ( maxilla )
    • mandible (lower jaw) (7) jaw )
    • nasosto (9) ( os nazale )
    • sphenoid (the sphenoidae )osseous (bony) system with diagrame
    • ethmoid (the ethmoidale )
    • lakrimalo ( os lacrimale )
    • palatost (the palatinum )
    • hyoid (the hyoideum )
    • hearing aids
      • mallet (hammer malleus )
      • inkudo (anvil incus )
      • steppe (stirrup stapes )
  • bones of the torso ( Ossa to truncate )
    • breastbone (10)
    • ribs (28)
      • true ribs
      • false ribs
      • hovering ribs
    • spine
      • sacrum (16) (the sacrum )
      • atlas ( atlas )
      • aksiso ( axis )
      • coccigo (the coccygis )
  • bones of the upper limbs ( Ossa extremitatis superioris )
    • bones of the shoulder belt
      • clavicle (25)
      • scapula (29)
    • humerus (11)
    • cubit (12)
    • radiant (13)
    • carpal bones ( ossa carpi )
      • scaphoid (the scaphoidum )
      • lunato ( os lunatum )
      • trikvetro (the triquetrum )
      • pizoid (the pisiform )
      • trapezium ( os trapezium )
      • trapezoid (os trapezoidum )
      • capitate ( os capitatum )
      • hamato ( os hamatum )
      • five metacarpal bones
      • finger bones ( phalanges )
  • bones of the lower limbs ( Ossa extremitatis inferioris )
    • bones of the pelvic area ( hip )
      • iliumo (15) ( os ilium )
      • pubis (the pubis )
      • ski ( os ischium )
    • femur (18)
    • patella (19)
    • warm (20)
    • fibula (21)
    • tarsal bones ( ossa tarsi )
      • astragalus (astragalus)
      • calcaneum ( os calcaneum )
      • triangular bone (the trigonum )
      • navicular ( navicular bone )
      • cuboid (the cuboidum )
      • 3 conoids (medial, intermediate, lateral Os cuneiform madiale, intermedium, lateral )
    • metatarsaj bones (1-5) ( ossa metatarsi )
    • toe bones ( phalanges ) ( ossa digitorium )

+ sesamoids (sesamoid bone )

It Can Serve You: What is the bone system?

Skeleton

The skeleton is the set of bones, the main component of the skeletal system. The word “skeleton” derives from the Greek skeleton meaning “dry matter”.

The bones are whitish, hard and resistant organs. It is formed by a type of mineralized connective tissue, which contains collagen and calcium phosphate.

Cartilage

The cartilage covers and protects the ends of the bones where there is friction. It also shapes the nose and ears. In the adult human being there is relatively little cartilage; On the other hand, in the fetus and in childhood, a large part of the skeletal system presents cartilage, which is later transformed into bone.

Tendons

The muscles are joined to the bones by the tendons. The tendons are the point of contact between

Ligaments

Ligaments are hard bands that hold bones together in joints.

Joints

The joint is a structure that is inserted between the rigid parts of the skeleton to allow movement. There are three kinds of joints:

  1. Movable joints or diarthrosis
  2. Semi-flexible articulations or amphiarthrosis.
  3. Stationary joints or synarthrosis.

The arthrology is the branch of anatomy that has studied the joints. In some joints is the synovial fluid, viscous liquid that allows the lubrication of the same.

Structure Of The Human Bony System

The skeletal system in vertebrates is divided into:

  1. Axial skeleton: forms the central axis of the body, which includes the head, spine and rib cage.
  2. Appendicular skeleton: represented by the members that are connected to the axial skeleton and includes the pelvic girdle and the shoulder girdle (shoulders).

Axial Skeleton

The human skeleton is essentially composed of a long spine placed vertically in the midline. In its upper extremity the skull is supported and in its lower extremity it is attenuated and sharpened to form the sacrum and the coccyx, vestige of the tail of the animals.

Spine

The vertebral column is constituted by the vertebrae, bone elements, discoids and superimposed. In the human being, 33 or 34 vertebrae are counted, distributed in four parts:

  1. Cervical portion: 7 vertebrae.
  2. Dorsal portion: 12 dorsal vertebrae.
  3. Lumbar portion: 5 vertebrae.
  4. Pelvic portion: 9 or 10 pelvic vertebrae that are welded and form two different parts, the sacrum and the coccyx.

Chest

The thorax is a cavity at the same time bone and cartilaginous in which the lungs and the heart are housed. The sternum is a flat and unique bone located in the anterior part of the thorax.

The ribs are long, flat bones that curve around the chest. In humans there are 24 ribs, 12 on each side of the sternum; divided in two:

  1. true ribs: the first seven pairs of ribs that articulate with the sternum.
  2. False or floating ribs: are the last five pairs that have no direct relationship with the sternum

Bone Head

The head is divided into two parts: the skull and the face. The skull comprises a set of bones that form a kind of box, where the organs of the brain are housed. In total there are eight bones, four pairs (two parietal and two temporal) and four odd (the frontal, the ethmoid, the sphenoid and the occipital).

On the face, most of the sense organs are accommodated and chewing is allowed. It is divided into two parts:

  1. Lower jaw: constituted by a single bone.
  2. Upper jaw: composed of thirteen bones.

Appendicular Skeleton

From the upper part of the thorax and from the lower part of the spine, two pairs of limbs are implanted on each side: the upper limbs or arms and the lower limbs or legs.

Upper Or Thoracic Member

The upper or thoracic member is formed by four segments:

  1. The shoulder: or scapular waist, constituted by the clavicle and shoulder blade (or scapula).
  2. The arm: where the humerus is the only bone.
  3. The forearm: constituted by two bones, the ulna and the radius.
  4. The hand: comprises twenty-seven bones distributed in the carpus, the metacarpus and the fingers.

The bones of the lower limbs are more robust because they support the weight of the body and the resulting effort of movement.

  1. The pelvis: or pelvic girdle is the site of union of the lower limbs.
  2. The thigh: where is the longest bone of the body, the femur.
  3. The leg: with the tibia and the fibula
  4. The foot: includes the tarsus, the metatarsus and the phalanges.

Bone System Functions

Protection of Body Organs

Due to the hardness of the bones and the way they are arranged, the bone system is critical for the protection of key organs in the body of animals.

For example, the skull protects the brain, the rib cage protects the heart and lungs and the spine protects the spinal cord.

Body Weight Support

The bony system allows us to stand up against the force of gravity. Most bones are covered by muscles that are inserted into the bones through the tendons.

Storage Of Calcium And Phosphorus

Calcium is one of the most important minerals for living beings. Calcium is stored in the bones, which represents 99% of the body’s calcium.

The hormones that have a preponderant role in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus are parathyroid hormone and calcitonin, as well as the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

Blood Cell Production

Inside the bones is the bone marrow, where the cells that circulate in the blood are produced: red blood cells and white blood cells. The process of forming blood cells is called hematopoiesis .

Mechanical Function

The movement is possible thanks to the joint action of muscles and bone system: walking, jumping, turning, running and sitting are possible by the effect of hinges and levers that form bones and muscles. Even breathing is driven by the movements of the rib cage.

The way the skeleton is designed allows us to perform a variety of movements.

How Many Bones Has The Human Body?

The human skeleton is an endoskeleton consisting of 206 bones when it reaches adulthood. But at birth, the baby has more than 300 bones. The reduction of 300 to 206 bones is due to the fact that in the process of development some bones fuse with others, as in the bones of the hand.

Number of bones

Number of bones in human body

Types Of Bones

According to how our bones look, they are usually divided into three large groups:

The bones can be classified as:

  • Long bones: like the femur, the tibia and the humerus.
  • Flat bones: like the frontal, the parietal and the ribs.
  • Short bones: like the phalanges, the bones of the carpus and the tarsus.
  • Long bones : Long bones are also called long tubular bones, because inside they have a large cavity that fills the bone marrow (experts talk about the bone marrow cavity). These include primarily all bones of the free limbs (this does not include only the bones of the wrist and bones of the tarsus). That is, a person’s long or tubular bones are, for example, the humerus, femur, forearm bones, and lower leg bones.
  • Short bones : The short bones of a person include the vertebrae, the bones of the wrist and bones of the tarsus, as well as part of the bones of the skull.
  • Flat bones : Flat bones are, for example, the sternum, shoulder blades and ribs.

We can find in the bones a “spongy” part, formed by visible trabeculae or orifices and a compact part or cortical bone. The bone is also covered by a dense pcapa known as periosteum .

The bone long bone has several parts:

  • Epiphysis: are the ends of the long bones.
  • Diaphysis: is the central portion that surrounds the space where the bone marrow resides.
  • Metaphysis: is the connection between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of the bones.

Bone Tissue

Microscopic image of a section of compact bone tissue.

The bone tissue is what makes up most of the skeleton. It is a dynamic tissue that changes throughout life and is made up of cells and a hard and resistant intercellular matrix. The bone matrix is ​​made up of 25% water, 25% protein and 50% mineral salts, mainly calcium salts (calcium hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate ). The cells that compose are 4 types: 14

  • Osteoprogenitor cells. They are precursor cells that originate the remaining cells of the bone tissue.
  • Osteoblasts . They are bone-forming cells, continuously secreting glycoprotein, mucopolysaccharide and tropocollagen molecules that form a matrix that is mineralized by the deposition of calcium salts.
  • Osteoclasts . They are cells that degrade and reabsorb bone. They therefore have the opposite mission to osteoblasts.
  • Osteocytes . They are mature cells that come from osteoblasts.

Types Of Bone Tissue

Compact bone tissue structure.

Bone tissue can be of two types: compact bone tissue and cancellous bone tissue.

  • Compact bone tissue is found in the shaft of the long bones, on the outside and inside of the flat bones, and in different areas of the rest of the bones. It is made up of concentric layers of bone lamellae that form cylindrical structures called osteons . At the center of the osteons are the Havers ducts through which the blood vessels pass and the Volkmann ducts that serve to connect several Havers ducts.
  • Cancellous bone tissue is found in the epiphyses of the long bones and the inner region of most other bones, including the flat bones. Its appearance is different from that of compact bone, it has interstitial lamellae that are arranged irregularly forming small partitions that are called trabeculae, which compose a spongy structure in whose holes is the red bone marrow . The red bone marrow is the place where the constituent cells of the blood are formed, its correct functioning is essential for the organism. 15

Hormones That Act On Bone

Different hormones act on bone and promote or slow its growth and mineralization. 16

  • Thyroid hormone . It stimulates endochondral ossification.
  • Growth hormone or GH. Increases bone formation, its excess causes gigantism.
  • Calcitonin . Decreases bone resorption and lowers the level of calcium in the blood.
  • Paratohormone . Accelerates bone resorption and increases calcium in the blood.
  • Estrogens . In women, they facilitate remineralization and prevent bone resorption.
  • Androgens . They produce an acceleration of bone growth. However, the excess of androgens in the pubertal stage also causes an early epiphyseal closure, so that the final adult size will be lower than the average.
  • Vitamin D . It stimulates the active transport of calcium and phosphorus through the intestine. Its deficit favors the loss of bone mineralization and causes osteoporosis or osteomalacia .

Diseases Of The Bony System

As in any other system of the body, the bone system can suffer problems that compromise its functioning. These problems can be congenital or acquired over the course of life.

  • Rickets . This disease is typical of childhood, it presents with calcium and phosphorus deficiencies.
  • Bone fracture . It consists of a broken bone, usually caused by trauma.
  • Osteoporosis . It consists of loss of bone density due to poor mineralization and loss of bone proteins. It causes fragility of the structure and fractures occur without trauma or minor trauma.
  • Osteomyelitis . Infection that affects bone tissue. One of the germs that can cause osteomyelitis is the Koch bacillus , the causative agent of tuberculosis .
  • Osteomalacia . An alteration occurs in the bone in such a way that the deposit of calcium salts is insufficient. Therefore, the bones are weak and deform easily. If it affects growing children, it is called rickets . One of the causes is vitamin D deficiency .
  • Primary bone cancer . Bone tumors can be of different types, including osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta . Congenital disease that causes bones prone to fractures and low resistance. It is due to the lack of production of one of the proteins that make up the bone matrix.
  • Acromegaly . It is due to increased growth hormone production, causing the bones to increase in size uncontrollably.
  • Achondroplasia . A disease of genetic origin that causes dwarfism due to a decrease in the length of the bones, especially those of the extremities.

Joints

  • Arthritis .
    • Rheumatoid arthritis . Inflammatory disease of autoimmune origin , characterized by persistent inflammation of the joints. It most often affects the small joints of the hands and feet
    • Psoriatic arthritis . Inflammatory joint process associated with psoriasis .
    • Gouty arthritis . It is produced by deposition of uric acid .
  • Arthrosis . Very common degenerative disease in people of middle or old age that affects the joints.

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