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Difference between multiprogramming and multitasking in operating system with table

WE explain the difference between multiprogramming and multitasking in operating system. The operating system is an important program that manages computer hardware and other software applications.

We can say that it acts as an intermediary. This is because the user cannot give commands directly to the CPU in machine language, nor can the CPU interact with the user directly. Therefore, there must be an intermediary that communicates and translates all interaction between the user and the CPU.

Besides the basic tasks that the operating system performs, such as controlling peripheral devices, displaying the output on the screen, tracking data and files, the operating system also has a higher purpose of multiprogramming and multitasking.

The main difference between multiprogramming and multitasking is that in multiprogramming the CPU executes more than one program simultaneously, while in multitasking the CPU executes more than one task simultaneously.

Comparison table between multiprogramming and multitasking in the operating system

Comparison parameter Multiprogramming Multitasking

Sense In a multiprogramming system, one or more programs are loaded into main memory that is ready to run simultaneously. Multitasking refers to running multiple programs, tasks, threads running at the same time
objective The goal of multiprogramming is to improve CPU utilization. The goal of multitasking is to improve response timing.
Hour Multiprogramming takes longer to run any program to process Multitasking requires less time to run any task or program process.

What is multiprogramming?

Multiprogramming focuses on increasing CPU utilization. Run multiple processes at the same time on a single processor.

The CPU jumps to another job or program while the program goes to IO operation, that is, in multiprogramming, the operating system keeps several jobs / programs in memory for the CPU to select a job and start executing it.

When that job needs to wait for any I / O operations, the CPU switches to another job and starts executing it. Hence, this keeps the CPU busy and heavily used and never remains idle.

Multiprogramming can be done on a slow processing CPU. It requires less memory (RAM or ROM) to function. This whole idea of ​​multiprogramming is to keep the CPU busy for as long as possible.

Advantages of multiprogramming

  1. High CPU utilization
  2. Shorter response time
  3. Ability to prioritize jobs.

Disadvantage of multiprogramming

  1. Scheduling deployment isn’t easy
  2. More management is required

What is multitasking?

Multitasking means working on more than one task at a time, which means you are using your computer and listening to songs. Also search for something on the Internet using a browser and create a Word file that is your homework. It seems that all the tasks are happening at the same time. It is not that all tasks happen at the same time, it is the processor switching between different ones so quickly that we think they are happening at the same time.

Multitasking is quite similar to multiprogramming, but in this CPU it is assigned to a process for a fixed timing i.e. ‘Quantum of time or time slice’ after the CPU ‘Context Switch’ to another process. Run more than one program or task at the same time.

In multitasking, users can interact with the system, for example, we can write a letter while the printing task is being carried out. To multitask, the PC requires a large memory (RAM or ROM). Its main objective is to improve the response time of the CPU.

Multitasking is a very complicated system. It is based on a time interval concept that assigns a fixed time interval to each task to be executed. It is very effective when a program needs a high degree of parallelism. Provides a fixed time interval for each program to run.

Advantages of multitasking

  1. Shorter response time
  2. Logical parallelism
  3. CPU utilization

Disadvantages of multitasking

  1. It cannot be implemented on a very slow speed processor.
  2. It requires a large storage memory to function.

Key differences between Multiprogramming and multitasking in the operating system

  • Multiprogramming is primarily focused on increasing CPU utilization. The programs are organized in such a way that the CPU will never be idle; you will always have one program after another to run. On the other hand, Multitasking aims to improve the response time of the CPU.
  • In multiprogramming, the change between the process is made when the current process is stopped and the CPU is assigned to another process, while in multitasking, the change between the tasks or processes occurs when the quantum time or the time portion of the process in progress.
  • Multiprogramming can be done on a computer that is low on RAM or ROM; it does not require a large memory storage to function. Whereas for Multitasking a large memory storage is required to perform all tasks or processes at the same time.
  • Multiprogramming requires more time to run any process compared to multitasking, which requires very little time to run any task or process.
  • The concept of multiprogramming is based on switching. The operating system keeps the task log in memory, and then the operating system performs the tasks stored in memory followed by another task and continues to perform the stored tasks. Whereas multitasking is based on time sharing and executes the tasks according to the same time allotted to each task or process.

Final Thought

Multiprogramming and multitasking are the two aspects of the modern operating system. Multiprogramming consists of registering several processes in memory and then executing them one after another on a single processor.

Multitasking is quite similar to multiprogramming, but in this CPU it is allocated to a fixed time process. Run more than one program or task at the same time using multiple CPUs on the same computer.

So we can say that multitasking can be considered as multiprogramming, however, multiprogramming cannot be considered as multitasking.

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