We explain that what is the difference between haploid and diploid cells? All the living creatures are formed from cells. A cell is considered the basic unit of operation of each organism. Each of these comes from a cell that existed before the first and these in turn will be followed by their daughter cells, to which they will transmit the genetic material they possess. This genetic material is called a genome. Cells according to the chromosomes in their nuclei are divided into haploid cells and diploid cells. Haploid organisms are those that only have one set of chromosomes, that is, half the usual number of chromosomes. Instead, diploids possess both pairs of chromosomes.
Haploid cells are those that have only one set of chromosomes (the number of chromosomes is identified as n ), that is, half the total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell. Reproductive cells, such as the ovules and sperm of mammals, the cells of the asexual stage of fungi, and those that make up some algae, contain a single set of chromosomes. The genesis of a haploid cell can occur in two ways: By haploid cell mitosis: The original or mother cell is haploid and has chromosomes that are duplicated and divided equally between the daughter cells. Due to diploid cell meiosis: The original or mother cell has 2n chromosomes and will undergo two cytoplasmic divisions with a single DNA replication. This process is known as meiosis and is divided into meiosis 1 and meiosis 2.
Diploid cells are those cells that have two sets of chromosomes or twice the number of chromosomes than diploid cells (identified as 2n). For example, in humans, diploid cells have 46 chromosomes forming a total of 23 pairs. Human sex cells have half the chromosomes, giving a total of 23 chromosomes, leaving one chromosome without its pair.
Which Cells Are Haploid And Diploid?
In humans, autosomal (or somatic) cells are diploid cells, they contain two sets of chromosomes (2n). These cells can be found in skin, blood, and muscle cells. The number of chromosomes (n) differs in different organisms, and in humans, the complete set (2n) comprises 46 chromosomes.
Haploid cells are found in gametes or germ cells, and contain only one set of chromosomes (n). An example of haploid cells are the cells found in sperm and in the egg.
Cell Division And Reproduction
All animal cells have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cells of the body, existing in homologous pairs (2n). Each pair of chromosomes consists of one chromosome from the mother and the second from the father.
During the process of meiosis (cell division for sexual reproduction), diploid cells (2n) divide to produce haploid cells, which contain only one set of chromosomes (n).
When the male and female gametes merge during fertilization and zygote formation, the number of chromosomes is restored back to 2n. Thus, diploid cells are those that contain a complete set of chromosomes, while haploid cells are those that have half the number of chromosomes in the nucleus (n).
This process does not occur in organisms that reproduce through asexual processes, such as bacteria. In plant cells, the “n”, or haploid, stage makes up a large part of their life cycle.
Cell growth is the result of mitosis, a process by which stem cells divide to give rise to identical haploid daughter cells, which contain the same number of chromosomes.
This process differs slightly in different types of cells. Animal cells undergo “open” mitosis, with the rupture of the nuclear membrane, while organisms such as fungi and yeast undergo closed mitosis, keeping their nuclear membrane intact.
1. A haploid cell has only one set of chromosomes (n), while diploid cells have two sets of chromosomes (2n).
2. In humans, somatic cells are diploid, while gametes are haploid.
3. Diploid cells develop as a result of mitotic cell division , while haploid cells develop as a result of meiotic cell division .
4. Mitosis produces 2 identical daughter cells, where both stem and daughter cells are diploid. In meiosis, a diploid cell divides twice to produce 4 haploid daughter cells.
5. Humans and most animals are considered diploid organisms, while algae and fungi are examples of organisms that are haploid for most of their lives. Male bees, wasps, and ants are also haploid.
Difference Between Haploid And Diploid
- Diploid cells (2n) are cells that have the normal number and composition of chromosomes of the species.
- Haploid cells are those that have only half the normal chromosome load of the other cells that make up an organism.
- Diploid cells divide by mitosis.
- Haploid cells divide through meiosis.
|Haploid cell||Diploid cell|
|Definition||We speak of a haploid cell when it is a cell that only contains one set of chromosomes.||In contrast, a diploid cell contains two sets of chromosomes.|
|Effect on mutations||Haploid cells are generated in two ways, through mitosis and through meiosis. Either way, this involves the exact duplication of the stem cell material, including any possible mutation. This will prevail through the daughter cells as it will continue to be transmitted.||In diploid organisms, the effects of deleterious mutations are reduced. As there is duplication of genomes and multicellularity, the ability to face the effect of mutations is enhanced.|
|Cellular division||They reproduce by mitosis, producing daughter cells that are exact replicas.||Haploid cells are the result of the process of meiosis, a type of cell division in which diploid cells divide to form haploid germ cells.|
|Organisms||Humans and most animals are considered diploid organisms.||Algae and fungi are examples of organisms that are haploid for most of their life. Male bees, wasps, and ants are also haploid.|
|Examples||Reproductive cells like sperm and egg cells of mammalian creatures are haploid cells||When a sperm and an egg (both separately haploid cells) come together and fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg becomes a diploid cell. A little later, this diploid cell becomes a diploid multicellular individual.|