- 1 What is cloud computing?
- 2 meaning of the cloud in the computer
- 3 cloud computing components
- 3.1 Cloud Storage
- 4 promotion and development of cloud computing
- 5 cloud computing and IT technology 
- 6 cloud computing usage mode 
- 7 The impact of cloud computing 
- 8 What does cloud computing mean for service providers 
- 9 What does cloud computing mean for users 
- 10 basic characteristics of cloud computing infrastructure 
- 11 cloud computing association concept 
- 11.1 Cloud computing has sprung up
- 11.2 Comparison of Cloud Computing and Utility Computing
- 11.3 Distributed Computing
- 11.4 Differences between cloud computing and grid computing
- 11.5 server cluster
- 11.6 Virtualization
- 12 cloud computing problems 
- 13 cloud computing architecture 
- 14 10 companies using cloud computing services 
- 15 cloud computing market segmentation and participants 
- 16 cloud computing open source project 
- 17 Risks of using cloud computing services 
- 18 cloud computing 12-layer model 
- 19 cloud computing market 
- 20 references
Cloud computing is a kind of distributed computing technology. The most basic concept is to automatically split a huge computational processing program into a myriad of smaller subroutines through the network. The huge system composed of multiple servers is searched, calculated and analyzed, and the processing results are transmitted back to the user. Through this technology, the network service provider may be in a matter of seconds, reaching tens of millions of processing information even billions of dollars, and to achieve ” supercomputersame powerful performance of” network services .
Cloud computing is a resource delivery and usage model that refers to the resources (hardware, platform, software) required to get applications through the network. The network that provides the resources is called the “cloud.” The resources in the “cloud” can be expanded infinitely by the user and can be obtained at any time. This feature is often compared to using hardware resources like hydropower to buy and use on demand. (Cloud computing is a resource delivery and usage model, it means get resource (Hardware, software) via network. The network of providing resource is called ‘Cloud’. The hardware resource in the ‘Cloud’ seems scalable infinitely and can Be used whenever.)
The simplest cloud computing technology has been found everywhere in network services, such as search engines, network mailboxes, etc. Users can get a lot of information by simply inputting simple commands.
In the future, mobile devices such as mobile phones and GPS can develop more application services through cloud computing technology.
Further cloud computing not only performs the functions of data search and analysis, but also calculates some methods such as analyzing DNA structure, genetic map sequencing, and analyzing cancer cells.
The large-scale distributed computing technology earlier was the origin of the concept of “cloud computing”
Google’s current cloud technology is mainly composed of MapReduce , GFS and BigTable.
The meaning of the cloud in the computer
The cloud refers to the Internet, which has been portrayed as a cloud in the past.
Cloud computing component
Cloud storage is a type of data that stores data on a virtual server. Typically, data is stored on a third-party medium rather than on a specific single server.
The promotion and development of cloud computing
In October 2007, Google and IBM began promoting cloud computing programs on US university campuses, including Carnegie Mellon University , Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Stanford University , University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Maryland . The plan hopes to reduce the cost of distributed computing technology in academic research and provide relevant software and hardware equipment and technical support for these universities (including hundreds of personal computers and BladeCenter and System x servers, these computing platforms will provide 1600 processing) Support for open source platforms including Linux, Xen, Hadoop, etc.) Students can develop research projects based on large-scale computing through the Internet
On January 30, 2008, Google announced the launch of the “Cloud Computing Academic Program” in Taiwan, which will cooperate with Taiwan University , Taiwan Jiaotong University and other schools to promote this advanced large-scale, fast computing technology to the campus.
On August 3, 2008, the US Patent and Trademark Office (hereinafter referred to as “SPTO”) website information indicates that Dell is applying for the “Cloud Computing” trademark , which is intended to strengthen the possible reshaping of the technology architecture for this future. The control of the term . In its application note, Dell said that cloud computing is “customizing in the manufacture of computer hardware for others in data centers and massive computing environments.
Cloud computing and IT technology
Cloud computing is a result of the development of processor technology, virtualization technology , distributed storage technology, broadband Internet technology and automated management technology. This large-scale computing power is usually distributed by large-scale clusters and server virtualization. Software build. (Cloud computing and technology: New advances in processors, virtualization technology, distributed storage, broadband Internet access, automated management and fast, inexpensive servers have all combined to make cloud computing a compelling paradigm. This vast process power is usually got with a distributed, Large-scale server cluster and server virtualization software.)
Cloud computing usage pattern
In the traditional computing mode, the resources of a single desktop are used to complete the task. In client server mode, the server is used to perform tasks. In cloud computing mode, the network supercomputer – “cloud” is used to perform tasks. Users can access computing, storage, and network resources over the Internet anytime, anywhere, and can pay for processor utilization, storage usage, and bandwidth consumption. (Cloud computing usage model: In traditional computing model, tasks are completed using a single desktop computer. In the client/serer model, tasks are completed using a remote server. In cloud computing model, tasks are completed using ‘Cloud’-a network Super computer.Cloud computing allows users and companies to pay for and use the services and storage that they need, when they need them and, as wireless broadband connection options grow, where they need them. Customers can be billed based upon server utlilization, processing Power used or bandwidth consumed.)
The impact of cloud computing
Cloud computing has the potential to disrupt the software industry , applications and licenses are readily available for purchase and effective, and applications run on the network rather than on the machine. This shift places the data center at the heart of the network, and the computing power, storage, bandwidth , and power required for all applications are provided by the data center. Cloud computing affects not only the business model , but also the way it is developed, deployed, run, and delivered. (Cloud computing impact: As a result, cloud computing has the potential to upend the software industry entirely, as applications are purchased, licensed and run over the network instead of a user’s desktop. This shift will put data centers and their administrators at the center Of the distributed network, as processing power, electricity, bandwidth and storage are all managed remotely. It affects not only business models, but the underlying architecture of how we develop, deploy, run and deliver applications.)
What does cloud computing mean for service providers
- Rapid Deployment (Fast Provision)
- Reduce the server scale
- Increase resource utilization rate
- Improve management efficiency
- Lower maintenance cost
- Infrastructure can be placed in areas with lower costs of real estate and electricity
- Provide business continuity service (Provide business continuity service)
- Improve management efficiency
- Improve service levels (Improve service levels)
- Complex architecture
- Business model and concept change (Change of business model and concept)
- What does cloud computing mean for users
- Lower client workload
- Reduce total cost of ownership (Lower Total Cost Ownership)
- Separation of infrastructure maintenance duties from domain-specific application development
- Separation of application code from physical resources
- Not having to purchase assets for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks
- Expand resource on-demand
- Make the application have high availability (Make the application have high availability)
- Quickly deploy application
- Pay per use
Basic characteristics of cloud computing infrastructure
- Linearly Scalable Linearly Scalable
- Resource Monitor and measure
- Resource registration and discovery
Cloud computing association concept
Cloud computing is becoming a hot concept in the industry. It has a more or less related relationship with the following vocabulary: grid computing , utility computing, virtualization, server clustering , host lease , hosting. Cloud computing platforms commonly use virtualization technology and are built on a cluster that has a natural connection to grid computing and utility computing and SaaS , and is used in the IDC industry to compete with hosting and hosting services. (Cloud computing’s brother buzzwords: Cloud computing is becoming one of the next industry buzz words. And it has more or less relation with these words: grid computing, utility computing, virtualization, server cluster, Dedicated server, Colocation. Virtualization technology, and is built based on a server cluster, have nature relation to grid computing and utility computing, and is use to compete with Dedicated server and Colocation.)
Cloud computing has sprung up
Relative to the brotherhood concept of cloud computing, cloud computing is just emerging. From the information we got from Google Trend, we can see that cloud computing was only counted by the system at the end of 2007 and has been on the rise. At the same time, the concepts of grid computing, utility computing, and distributed computingare declining. Cloud computing and virtualization should make a difference on the hosting platform, while hosting leases have shown a downward trend. (Cloud computing break out:Compared to its brother buzzwords, cloud computing is just beginning. Trends in usage of the terms from Google searches shows Cloud Computing is a relatively new term introduced in the past year. There has also been a decline in general interest The Grid, Utility and Distributed Computing. Cloud Computing and Virtualization are the next hot hosting platforms; the Dedicated server term is slowly starting to lose ground vs. Virtualization and Cloud Computing.)
Comparison of cloud computing and utility computing
Utility computing is a business model to provide computing resources, user computing resources from suppliersof computing resources to access and use and pay for the resources actually used. Simply put, it is a payment model based on resource usage. Utility calculations mainly bring economic benefits to users . Resource utilization in enterprise data centers is generally around 20%, mainly because of over-deployment—purchasing more peak-to-peak loads than expected, and predictable or unpredictable. Utility computing allows users to pay only for the portion of the resources they need to use and have used. (Utility computing is a business model of providing computing resource, user get and use the computing resource from service provider and pay for practically used resource. To say it simply, it is a price model based on resource usage quantity. The main benefit of utility Computing is better economics. Corporate data centers are not oriously underutilized, with resources such as servers often idle 85 percent of the time. This is due to overprovisioning — buying more hardware than is needed on average in order to handle peaks (such as the opening of The Wall Street trading dayOr the holiday shopping season), to handle expected future loads and to prepare for unanticipated surges in demand. Utility computing allows companies to only pay for the computing resources they need, when they need them.)
Utility computing is a billing model that distributes the resources required by an application. Cloud computing is a computing model that represents the sharing of resources to design, develop, deploy, and run applications to some extent, as well as the scalable shrinkage of resources and support for application continuity. Utility computing typically requires cloud computing infrastructure support, but it is not required. Similarly, utility calculations can be provided on top of cloud computing or not. (Comparison of Utility Computing and Cloud Computing: Utility computing is a business model, it is a type of price model to deliver application infrastructure resource. Cloud computing is a computing model, relates to the way we design, build, deploy and run applications that Operating in a growing resources and boasting the ability to dynamically grow, shrink and self-heal. Utility computing is often need a cloud computing infrastructure, but not must need. Sameness, above the cloud computing, we can input utility computing, and, we Can adopt other price model.)
Distributed computing refers to the use of a hardware and software system to handle tasks under a loose or severe constraint. This system consists of multiple processor units or storage units, multiple concurrent processes, and multiple programs. A program is divided into multiple parts and run on a computer connected through a network . Distributed computing is similar to parallel computing, but parallel computingUsually used to refer to multiple parts of a program running simultaneously on multiple processors on a single computer. Therefore, distributed computing often has to deal with heterogeneous environments, diverse network connections, unpredictable network or computer errors. (Distributed Computing: distributed computing deals with hardware and software systems containing more than one processing element or storage element, concurrent processes, or multiple programs, running under a loosely or tightly controlled regime. In distributed computing, a program is split up into parts that The operation of a computer of a computing system, the parallel computing is a common of the program, the parallel computing is most commonly used to describe program parts running simultaneous on multiple processors in the same computer. That can run simultaneous, but distributed programs often must deal with heterogeneous environments, network links of varying latencies.
Differences between cloud computing and grid computing
Grid computing refers to two types of subtypes that are widely used in distributed computing. One type is online computing or storage that is provided as a service with the support of distributed computing resources. The other is a virtual supercomputer consisting of a loosely connected computer network that can be used to perform large-scale tasks. This technology is often used to solve computationally sensitive research, mathematics, and academic problems through volunteer computing, as well as back-end data processing, economic forecasting , and seismic analysis required by commercial companies for e-commerce and web services . (Grid computing: Grid computing is a term for either of two broad subcategories of distributed computing: 1 Online computation or storage offered as a service supported by a pool of distributed computing resources, also known as utility computing, on-demand computing, or cloud Computing. Data grids provided controlled sharing and management of large amounts of distributed data, often used in combination with computational grids. 2 The creation of a “virtual supercomputer” composed of a network of loosely-coupled computers, acting in concertTo perform very large tasks. This technology has been applied to computationally-intensive scientific, mathematical, and academic problems through volunteer computing, and it is used in commercial enterprises for such diverse applications as drug discovery, economic forecasting, seismic analysis, and back- Office data processing in support of e-commerce and web services.
Grid computing emphasizes resource sharing. Anyone can use the resources of other nodes as a requester. Anyone needs to contribute certain resources to other nodes. Grid computing emphasizes shifting workloads to remote available computing resources. Cloud computing emphasizes proprietary, anyone can access their own proprietary resources, and these resources are provided by a small group, users do not need to contribute their own resources. In cloud computing, computing resources are transformed into workloads. It supports grid-type applications and non-grid environments, such as a three-tier network architecture running traditional or Web 2.0 applications.
Grid computing focuses on parallel computational concentration requirements and is difficult to scale automatically. Cloud computing focuses on transactional applications, and a large number of individual requests can be extended automatically or semi-automatically. (Grid computing, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, Which are mostly remote and are readily available for use. Grids also require applications to conform to the grid software interfaces. Cloud computingmarcinski on proprietary, every user out of the cloud can get it’s own private resource from the cloud, and the cloud resource are Provided by the specific service provider, the user need not contribute its resource. In a cloud environment, computing resouces, such as servers,
Server clustering refers to associating a group of servers so that they look like the same server in many ways. Servers within a cluster are typically connected through a local area network and are typically used to improve performance and availability, but generally have lower costs than a single host with equivalent performance features and availability. (Computer cluster: A computer cluster is a group of coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. The components of a cluster are commonly, but not always, connected to each other Through fast local area networks. Clusters are usually deployed to improve performance and/or availability over that provided by a single computer, while typically being much more cost-effective than single computers of comparable speed or availability.
Grids are usually more loosely connected, heterogeneous, geographically dispersed, and have less trust between hosts. (Grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed, grid computers do not fully trust each other.)
Virtualization refers to a broad concept of abstracting computing resources. Virtualization hides the underlying attributes of computing resources from upper-level applications or users. It involves dividing a single resource (such as a server, an operating system, an application, a storage device) into multiple virtual resources, and also consolidating multiple resources (such as storage devices or servers) into one virtual resource. Virtualization technology refers to the collective concept of specific technical means and methods for implementing virtualization. Virtualization technologies can be divided into storage virtualization , computing virtualization, network virtualization, and the like according to objects . Computational virtualization can be divided into operating system level virtualization, application level, and virtual machine manager. The virtual machine manager is divided into a host virtual machine and a guest virtual machine. (Virtualization: Virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources. Virtualization hides the physical characteristics of computing resources from their users, be they applications, or end users. This includes making a single physical resource (such as a server, an operating system, an application, or storage device) appear to function as multiple virtual resources; it can also include making multiple physical resources (such as storage devices or servers) appear as a single virtual resource. Virtualization technology is a aggregative term of technical means and methods to implement virtualization. It can be divided to many types based on objects: storage virtualization, computing virtualization, network virtualization. Computing virtualization include: OS level virtualization , application level virtualization, hyper visor. Hypervisor include: host vm and guest vm.)
The problem of cloud computing
- Continuous high availability
- Failure handling of a cluster
- Synchronization of different clusters
- Interoperability and standarlization
- In the burgeoning and growth stages, vendors are trying to build their own interface APIs.
- Scalability of all components
- Information secrecy
- Cross-regional storage and data transfer may cause legal and political problems (legal and political problem of data store and translation across regions)
- Performance issue
- Difficulty customizing
- Organizational obstacle
Cloud computing architecture
Cloud computing platforms are generally divided into the following layers: physical facilities, virtualization, management, and service provision. Physical facilities are virtualized to provide a flexible pool of resources to increase resource utilization. The management is responsible for the management, deployment, monitoring, and alarming of physical resources and virtual resource pools . The service provider layer combines the functions of the management layer to provide some form of service. The key to new enterprise data center infrastructure services are the next two layers, the virtualization environment and management layer. The combination of these two layers ensure that resources in a data center are efficiently managed and can be provisioned, deployed, and configured rapidly.)
10 companies using cloud computing services
1. The NY Times (Amazon EC2)
2. Nasdaq (Amazon S3)
3. Major League Baseball (Joyent)
4. ESPN (Rightscale using Amazon EC2)
5. Hasbro (Amazon EC2)
6. British Telecom (3Tera)
7. Taylor Woodrow (Google Apps)
8. CSS (Amazon EC2)
9. Activision (Amazon EC2)
10. Business Objects (A SAP Company) (Rightscale using Amazon EC2)
Cloud computing market segmentation and participants
Cloud computing technology and solution providers:
- 3Tera – AppLogic grid OS used as cloud computing platform by service providers and enterprises
- Appistry – Cloud computing middleware – Enables easily scalable cloud computing in the enterprise.
- Cassatt – Cassatt Active Response platform enables administrators to set policies to power physical and virtual servers safely on and off and pool their computing resources.
- CloudScale Networks – Cloud enabler. Currently in private ALPHA only
- CloudHan – Cloud tech and infrastructure consultant, in China.
- Enomaly Inc – Service Provider & Cloud Enabler – Developer of the Enomalism Elastic Computing Platform & Elastic Drive
- Q-layer – provides software for data centers that enables cloud computing, support VSAN, VLAN , VPDC, currently support VMware ESX.
- Skytap – IaaS service optimized for QA, Training, Demo, and Ops Testing. Supports VMware, Xen hypervisors & Windows, Linux & Solaris OS guests.
Cloud Infrastructure Infrastructure Services:
- Agathon Group – Cloud provider. Services include highly available VPS , virtual private datacenters and ready-to-use LAMP stacks. Self-service ordering. Custom development and managed services available.
- Amazon Web Services – Amazon EC2/S3 (Hardware-aaS & Cloud Storage)
- CohesiveFT – CohesiveFT Elastic Server On-Demand
- ElasticHosts – UK-based instant, on-demand servers in the cloud
- Flexiscale – Another instant provisioner of web servers with some advanced features like auto-scaling coming soon.
- GoGrid – instant, on-demand servers offering “control in the cloud”. Deploy Windows/Linux servers via web-interface in minutes
- GridLayer – Cloud Provider. A service by Layered Technologies that delivers Virtual Private Datacenters and virtual private servers from grids of commodity servers
- LayeredTechnologies – Cloud Provider. provider of on-demand hosting and cloud and utility computing solutions through its brand GridLayer
- Mosso – Rackspace’s cloud hosting service
- Newservers – Instant provisioning of web servers either Windows or Linux
Cloud computing platform layer services:
- Bungee Connect – Provides end to end tools and systems required to develop, deploy and host web applications ( Platform as a Service )
- Coherence – Oracle Coherence Data Grid for EC2 and other cloud platforms
- Force.com – Salesforce.com ‘s application development platform ( PaaS )
- GigaSpaces – middleware for the cloud, “cloudware”
- Google AppEngine – (PaaS)Now support python
- Heroku – Ruby on Rails in their Cloud
- Qrimp – An AJAX based PaaS
- RightScale – RightScale provides a platform and expertise that enable companies to create scalable web applications running on Amazon ’s Web Services that are reliable, easy to manage, and cost less
Cloud-based services (Saas, cloud storage):
- CAM Solutions – SaaS Provider. Cloud Event Management, Autonomics and Monitoring-as-a-Service(TM)
- CloudStatus- CloudEnabler. Real-time performance trending of cloud infrastructure (currently AWS).
- Kaavo’s IMOD is an easy to use online application. Cloud Computing Made Easy.
- Microsoft Mesh
- Nasstar – SaaS provider. Business grade Hosted Desktop service, UK market leaders.
- Nirvanix – Cloud Storage
- TrustSaaS – uptime monitoring and alerting service (‘SaaS Weather Report’) for Software as a Service ( SaaS) run by an independent third party.
Cloud computing open source project
Enomalism, convirt, redhat genome, hyperVM, lxlabs, LN, OpenNEbula, reservoir-fp7, scalr, eucalyptus, ganeti, gplhost, ovirt.
Useful open source projects to build cloud platform:
Kenso, hyperic, virt-P2V.
Risk of using cloud computing services
- Priority access risk (Privileged user access.)
- Regulatory compliance.
- Data location.
- Data segregation.
- Data Recovery Risk (Recovery.)
- Investigative support.
- Long-term viability.
Cloud computing 12-layer model
Here is the cloud computing model described by Dell:
This is a clearly academic model map, just like the ISO seven-layer network model, which is always only a reference.
In comparison, the following diagram is more expressive:
Below is a data center described by DELL
In fact, this data center does not look very different from the traditional data center. The meaning of cloud computing cannot be expressed through a data center diagram.
Cloud computing market
The market is divided into the following levels:
- Cloud Computing
- Platform as a Service (PaaS)
- Software as a Service (SaaS)
- Core Cloud Services
Explain as follows:
- Infrastructure: the core computing resources and network fabric for the cloud deployment
- Platform: the software infrastructure that allows sys admins and developers to deploy an app to the cloud
- Core services: additional services that can be woven into the cloud app, such as billing, storage, integration
- Applications: the ultimate cloud product – the actual cloud based application that the user touches. These numbers in the thousands.
Below is a list of market participants:
- Public Cloud
- Amazon EC2
- ServePath GoGrid
- Rackspace Mosso Cloud
- Joyent Accelerators
- Private Cloud
- Cassatt Active Response
- Enomaly Enomalism Platform
- Globus Toolkit
- Sun Project Caroline
- Open Cloud Platforms
- Morph Labs
- Aptana CloudStudio
- Custom Cloud Platforms
- Salesforce.com force.com
- Google App Engine
- Bungee Labs Connect
- Intuit Quickbase
- Cloud Platform Tools
- Fabric Mgmt
- Elastra Cloud Server
- 3Tera AppLogic
- Kaavo IMOD
- Data Grids
- Oracle Coherence
- IBM eXtreme Scale
- GigaSpaces Data Grid
- Gemstone Gemfire
- Virtual Appliances
- Hyperic CloudStatus
- Fabric Mgmt
- Amazon S3
- Amazon SimpleDB
- Microsoft SSDS
- Rackspace Mosso CloudFS
- Google BigTable
- Bungee Labs Connect
- MuleSource Mule OnDemand
- Amazon SQS
- Microsoft BizTalk Services
- OpSource Connect
- SnapLogic SaaS Solution Packs
- Appian Anywhere
- OpSource Billing
- Ping Identity
- Oracle OnDemand
- Google Apps