Chemistry is the science that studies the structure, composition and properties of matter, as well as the transformations that it undergoes during chemical reactions.
It is one of the basic sciences because many fields of knowledge, such as biology, medicine, geology or astronomy, rely on it to develop its contents.
Chemistry: Table Of Contents
Chemistry has always been present in the history of humanity: our first ancestors already used it when they transformed clay into ceramics, painted surfaces with natural dyes or preserved food in salt. The Greek philosophers looked at her with disdain for their practical nature far removed from the “pure” thought. It was not until the Renaissance and specifically with Robert Boyle that the name Chemistry was coined, and he described the experimental method to acquire new knowledge, practising mental induction to interpret the observed reality. The Chemistry from this moment looked, like all experimental science, the How instead of Why.
In the twentieth century, Chemistry delves into the study of the structure of atoms and the formation of molecules, formulas and complex organisms and the chemical industry expands with the creation of new materials, products and drugs that help improve quality of people’s lives.
Currently, Chemistry continues to provide many improvements for the progress of society, especially thanks to new fields of study and their applications.
In an attempt to classify the different branches of Chemistry we must mention:
- Organic chemistry: studies the compounds that contain atoms with carbon / hydrogen bonds, such as hydrocarbons, polymers or proteins. It covers all natural elements and organic tissues. It provides us with solutions to improve our quality of life in areas such as hygiene or health.
- Inorganic chemistry: studies the formation, composition, structure and chemical reactions of inorganic elements and compounds, that is, those that do not contain carbon / hydrogen bonds, such as metals, minerals or ceramic materials. For example, fibre optic, concrete or electronic chips are applications of inorganic chemistry.
- Biochemistry: Study the substances present in living organisms, such as plants, animals, microorganisms or humans.
- Chemistry-physics: studies the matter and its transformations through the application of physical knowledge such as movement, time, energy, forces, etc.
- Analytical chemistry: its purpose is the study of the chemical composition of a material or sample, through different laboratory methods.
- Chemical engineering: branch of engineering that is responsible for the development of industrial processes to carry out the chemical and physical transformations of matter and the design of new materials whose elaboration requires sophisticating physical and chemical transformations of matter.
- Astrochemistry: study the composition of the material elements found in the universe, such as stars, planets or comets.
- Electrochemistry: analyses the relationship between chemical reactions and electricity.
- Pharmaceutical chemistry: Study of molecules and their synthesis to develop medicines with the aim of combating or alleviating diseases.
- Environmental chemistry: it studies the chemical processes that take place in the environment (in the soil, the water of seas, rivers, lakes and oceans and in the atmosphere …), as well as the impact of human activities on our environment.
Only with the aforementioned concepts can we get an idea of the many applications of this science in industry and in society. For example, for the development of new fabrics or materials to increase sports performance, for the creation of more environmentally friendly fuels or cosmetic products for people with high sensitivity to the skin.